So I’ll be keep a doc of notes from Genki for my own use, but I figured I’d share with everyone just in case anyone finds it useful.
Warning! These notes might cover some concepts that haven’t been introduced yet. That’s just how I like to keep my notes! I like having the most information possible when learning something!
Chapter 1 Notes
X is Y. As for X, it is Y.
専攻は日本語です。(My) major (X) is Japanese (Y).
As for major, it is Japanese.
DICTIONARY NOTES (p. 521)
- “Someone/something is/was someone or something OR is/was in some state, or will do/does/did something”
- Copula だ・です can also replace the predicate if the action is understood
- 私は毎朝コーヒーを飲む。家内は紅茶だ。I drink coffee every morning. My wife drinks tea.
- (A)私はハワイへ行きます。I am going to Hawaii.
- (B)私はフロリダです。(In response) I am going to Florida.
- When the copula is used for a predicate, it usually appears in the non-past tense regardless of the tense of the predicate.
- は section can be dropped in casual speech if it is understood from the context.
- (A)それは何ですか。What is that?
- (B)辞書です。(This is) a dictionary.
CASUAL (XはYだ or XはY)
- Casual replaces ですwith だ, but だ is generally only used by males, and only when making a strong statement. It makes a STATEMENT, which is too strong and forceful for feminine speech.
- あの人は先生だ。That person over there is a teacher.
- だ can only be added to the end of な-adjectives and nouns, NOT い adjectives!
- For casual speech, you can/should also just drop the copula altogether
Question sentences (Statement + か)
To turn any statement into a question, add か to the end of the statement.
(A)専攻は日本語です。(My) major is Japanese.
(B)専攻は日本語ですか。Is (your) major Japanese?
DICTIONARY NOTES (p. 166)
- “A sentence-final particle which indicates that the preceding sentence is interrogative”
- か is also used with indirect questions
- 友達は漢字が難しいかと聞いた。My friend asked if kanji was difficult.
- Question word order remains the same as the original statement word order.
- か is usually omitted in casual speech
- Just make sure the question is said with rising intonation so that the listener knows that you are asking a question
- While question marks (?) are not used in formal Japanese writing, they can be used in casual writing to show that a question is being asked
- Be careful, because using か in casual speech can be seen as being sarcastic or asking a rhetorical question
The の particle connects 2 nouns and can act as either a descriptor, or in the possessive
大学の先生 university professor
たけしさんの電話番号 Takeshi’s phone number
Noun2: main noun
DICTIONARY NOTES (p. 312)
- “A particle which, with a preceding noun phrase, forms a phrase to modify a following noun phrase”
- Noun1 modifies noun2
- Noun1 can sometimes be a noun phrase with a particle
- 八時からのパーティー The party which had started at 8:00
- Can also be extended to noun3, etc.
- In this kind of phrase, a noun can be omitted if it is obvious from the context of the conversation
- (A)誰の本ですか。Whose book is this?
- (B)私のです。It is my (book).