It seemed like people found my notes from the last chapter helpful, so I’ll keep posting them. The formatting gets a little messed up when I copy them over, so sorry if anything looks off.
Chapter 2 Notes
これ: “this thing here”, close to the speaker
- これはいくらですか。How much is this one?
それ: “that thing there”, close to listener
- それはいくらですか。How much is that one?
あれ: “that thing over there”, far from both speaker and listener
- あれはいくらですか。How much is that one (over there)?
どれ: “which thing”, question word
- どれがいいですか。Which one is good?
この、その、あの、どの + Noun
Must be followed by a noun!
Similar to これ・それ・あれ・どれ, but modifying a noun
- この本は面白いです。This book is interesting.
- その本はつまらないです。That book is boring.
- あの本は高いです。That book (over there) is expensive.
- どの本は安いですか。Which book is cheap.
Here, there, over there, where
Used for giving directions
- 喫茶店はどこですか。Where is the cafe?
- あそこです。It is over there.
誰の + noun
- これは誰の本ですか。Whose book is this one?
- 私のです。It is mine.
“Too, also”; indicates that things have equal weight/value
Can only replace particles は・が・を
- (A)私はアメリカ人です。I am American.
- (B)あなたもアメリカ人です。You are also American.
- AはXです. BもXです. A is X. B is also X.
DICTIONARY NOTES (p. 247)
- “A particle which indicates that a proposition about the preceding element X is also true when another similar proposition is true”
- In addition to saying the subject also did something, it can be used to say that the subject could do more than one thing.
- (A)私は日本語を話す。I speak Japanese.
- (B)私はスペイン語も話す。I also speak Spanish.
- も should be combined with other particles if not the subject or object
- 日本へ行く。I am going to Japan.
- イタリアへも行く。I am also going to Italy.
- CANNOT be used to say Xは is something and Xも is something else
- 私は医者です。そして先生でもある。I am a doctor and also a teacher.
Formal, negative, nonpast form of Nounです。
- これは猫です。This is a cat
- これは猫じゃないです。This is not a cat.
In more conservative speech, じゃありません is used.
To be even more formal in writing, use ではありません.
- じゃ is the colloquial form of では
Usage is the same as です・だ, but in the negative form
- Simply drop the です off of any form of the negative to make it less formal
ね: used when the speaker is seeking confirmation or agreement
- リーさんの選考は文学ですね。Ms. Lee’s major is literature, right?
よ: turns a statement into an authoritative decree
- スミスさんはイギリス人ですよ。Mr. Smith is British, you know.
ね (p. 286)
- “A sentence-ending particle that indicates the speaker’s request for confirmation or agreement from the hearer about some shared knowledge)
- Speaking notes: when using the ね of agreement, use a falling intonation; when using the ね of confirmation, use a rising intonation
- ね+え can also be used to show excitement about a topic
- 面白い映画でしたねえ！It was such an interesting movie, wasn’t it!
- The extra え draws out that last syllable when speaking
- ね can be added to the end of any formal or informal sentence, except for the non-polite imperative
- 読めね INCORRECT
- 読みなさいね・読んでくださいね (Please) read it, will you?
- ね can also be added to the end of other sentence-ending particles, such as よ or か.
- ∼よね “I assert that ~ but don’t you agree?”
- あの先生はいい先生ですよね。That teacher is a good teacher. Don’t you think so?
- ∼かね “I am not sure if ___?
- あの先生はいい先生ですかね。I doubt that he is a good teacher.
よ (p. 543)
- “A sentence-ending particle that indicates the speaker’s (fairly) strong conviction or assertion about something that is assumed to be only known to him”
- Conveys NEW information to the listener
Can be combined with ね, but CANNOT be combined with a question (か)