Well once again here’s my notes, and sorry if the format got weird when I copied everything over. Also, there’s a lot of notes about casual/non-polite forms of verbs because I like keeping all of that together, even though it isn’t introduced until much later into Genki I. Feel free to skip over it of course.
Chapter 3 Notes
Verb Conjugation (Polite Non-Past Tense)
Take dictionary form (base + る), drop る, and add polite non-past ending to the base (∼ます・∼ません)
Take the dictionary form (base + う/る), change う sound into い sound (く→き), and add polite non-past ending to the base (∼ます・∼ません)
Sometimes used to form compound verbs (勉強する・持ってくる)
Polite Non-Past Notes
Used when making a statement that you WILL do something (future tense), or habitually do something.
NOT USED TO SAY YOU ARE DOING SOMETHING NOW!
- For casual non-past positive, simply use the dictionary form to say that you will do something, or habitually do something
- 私はコーヒーを飲む。I drink coffee (casual).
- For casual non-past negative, use ∼ない form (Lesson 8)
- 私はお茶を飲まない。I do not drink tea (casual).
Direct objects for transitive verbs
Directly involved in, or affected by, the event
- コーヒーを飲みます。I drink coffee.
DICTIONARY NOTES (p. 347)
- “A particle which marks a direct object”
- Keep in mind that a direct object in English is not always eligible to be marked with を in Japanese
- 私は英語がわかる。I understand English.
- Even though English (language) would be the direct object in an English sentence, が is used instead of を
- が also replaces を in other constructions
- たい form
- I drink milk→I want to drink milk
- られる (potential form)
- I speak Japanese→I can speak Japanese
- てある (has been done)
- Open the window→Window has been opened
- If the direct object is presented as the topic, replace を with は
- 日本語は知りません。I do not know Japanese.
Indicates where event described by the verb takes place
- 家でテレビを見ます。I watch TV at home.
DICTIONARY NOTES (p. 105)
- “A particle which indicates location, except for the location of existence”
- Location of existence would use に instead of で
- 家に猫がいる。There is a cat in the house.
- 机の前に本がある。There is a book on the desk.
- The exception to this is if the existing thing is an event
- 今晩ジムの家でパーティーがあります。There is a party (event) at Jim’s house tonight.
- There are other uses for で that will be covered in future chapters
Goal towards which things move
- 家に帰ります。I will go back home.
OR time at which an event takes place
Not used with non-specific times/dates
DICTIONARY NOTES (p. 289 & 302)
- “A particle which indicates a place toward which someone or something moves” (p. 302)
- “A particle that indicates a point of time at which something takes place” (p. 289)
- に is needed when mentioning (1) the days of the week and (2) numerical time expressions (8:00, April, etc.)
- 月曜日に学校へ行きます。I will go to school on Monday.
- 十二時に寝ます。I go to sleep at 12:00.
- に is NOT needed when mentioning (1) time expressions such as “today” or “tomorrow”, (2) expressions describing regular intervals of time, such as “everyday”, or (3) “when”
- 今日仕事へ行った。Today I did not go to work.
- 毎日昼ごはんを食べます。I eat lunch everyday.
- いつ行きますか。When will you go?
- When using an approximate time measurement like ごろ, the に particle may be dropped
- There are many other uses for に that will be covered later
Indicates goal of movement
- 今日は学校へ行きません。Today I will not go to school.
DICTIONARY NOTES (p. 116)
- “A particle that indicates the direction toward which some directional movement or action proceeds”
- へ and に are very similar and can be used mostly interchangeably, except for when combining with the の particle (に cannot be followed by の)
- ここへの道を悪かった。The way (towards) here was rough/bad.
Extends an invitation
DICTIONARY NOTES (p. 243)
- Can be used instead of ~ましょう to be more polite when inviting someone
- Change ~ませんか into ~ましょう
- While both act as invitations, ~ませんか is asking politely “Will you ___?” while ~ましょう is an invitation more along the lines of “Let’s do something.”
Frequency Adverbs (毎日・時々・よく・全然・あまり)
Add frequency adverbs to verbs to show how frequently or infrequently you do something.
Negative frequency adverbs must be used with the negative form of a verb
Positive frequency adverbs: 毎日 (everyday), 時々 (sometimes), よく (often)
- 時々喫茶店に行きます。I go to the cafe sometimes.
Negative frequency adverbs: 全然 (not at all), あまり (not much)
- 全然テレビを見ません。I never watch TV. (I do not watch TV at all)
あまり is sometimes changed to あんまり when used casually/colloquially
The Topic Particle は
See notes from XはYです。
“As for X(は), it is such that…”
The topic DOES NOT need to be the subject of the sentence.
DICTIONARY NOTES (p. 516)
- “A particle which marks a topic or a contrastive element”
- Used to mark information which the speaker assumes to be part of the listener’s register; assumes that the listener knows what the speaker is referring to
- Contrasts with が, which usually assumes that the speaker is conveying NEW information to the listener
- (A) 昔々、一人のおじいさんが住んでいました。Once upon a time, there lived an old man. (Information being introduced, so が)
- (B) おじいさんはとてもやさしい人でした。The old man was a very gentle person. (Information is now known, so は)
- は can never be used with 何 (what) or 誰 (who) because these words do not refer to a known thing and, therefore, cannot be known to the listener.
- In XはY, the focus is put on Y, or what comes after は
- As usual, は can be dropped if it is understood from the context.
は vs. が
- メアリーは学生です。Mary is a student. Emphasis is on what comes AFTER the は particle.
- As for Mary, she is a student.
- これは本です。This is a book. Emphasis is on “book,” not “this.”
- メアリーが学生です。Mary is a student. Emphasis on what comes BEFORE the が particle.
- Mary is the one who is a student.
- これが本です。This is a book. Emphasis is on “book,” not “this.”
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FknmUij6ZIk (Japanese Ammo with Misa)