Words ending in ず

I have come across in reading words that look like verbs but end in ず. An example this morning お金かけずに手間かけて. Please can someone explain what this means. I feel there is some grammar I am missing (well I’m missing loads and this is just part of the list!)

Ah! Think I solved it myself. I thought perhaps ずに was a phrase added to the verb stem and looking in the dictionary is said that it means not doing and you add it to the nai stem. Same for ず




I‘ve learned this one recently as „without“, without doing something

So maybe in your example something doesn’t need/cost any money?

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ず is a classical grammar form for negation. It doesn’t need to appear with に, but when it does it works like you said.


A couple of irregular conjugations exist for the usual suspects, namely 来る→こず and する→せず

Tae Kim page about it


By the way, congratulations on reaching 60. At one stage you were about 15 levels ahead of me but looks like you kept up the pace whilst I seem to have hit a barrier, which I hope is temporary but not sure as a lot happening in my life at the moment (in the process of emigrating to NZ from the UK).

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To be fair this is his second time


It means to “put in effort without spending money.”

金をかける to spend money (or to take money in the sense of “it takes money to start a business.
ずに old fashioned ないで meaning “without doing”
手間をかける to put in effort

Ending with the te-form indicates a simple, but not so forceful, command.

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In fact, in modern Japanese, ず acts mostly like a suffix “without ~ing” that results in an quasi-noun (you could call it a “no-adjective” I guess), which can be adverbialised with に or directly without, but you’ll sometimes (rarely) find it with の or で, etc.

It also has a dual life as a literary/classical form of ぬ, and modern usage is a bit confused between the two. Sometimes (written only), you’ll find ず/ぬ used in its literary syntax (see for example the Imabi page on ず for more syntax). It’s similar to べき in that sense, if you know about that one: most of the time it’s treated as a (quasi-)noun, but sometimes you’ll see it as an adjective, following the literary syntax.

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