Short beginner question about の particle

I was searching about the word 文化(culture) on Jisho when I came across the example sentence :
“日本文化に 造詣深いことはいいことです”

Why isn’t 日本文化 connected by the の particle? Are there times when we can exclude the
の particle?


It’s just a compound word, think of the difference between “Japanese culture” and “The culture of Japan” or something similar, the meaning is exactly the same but the way of saying it is a little different. J-J dictionaries like redirect 日本文化 to 日本の文化. I think you can’t do this in general with any の connected phrase, but there are a lot where you can. Here’s a Stack Exchange about compound words.

At the end of the day you just need to learn from experience which words are compound words, and which aren’t. A good test is to Google both terms with “quotes” to see which one is more common online. 日本の文化 has around 41M results compared to 日本文化 which has 21 million. Another thing to notice is that many of the results for 日本文化 are Chinese, so I think it’s safe to say that number is inflated.

Also, take sentences from the Tanaka Corpus (what Jisho uses) with a grain of salt, they kinda suck sometimes. A better sentence database can be found at Weblio or Alc. I might be wrong as a learner myself, but your sentence sounds a lot better to me with には rather than just に for example.


Japan does love its compound nouns, though. For example, 東北地方太平洋沖地震 = Great East Japan Earthquake.

One way to avoid that is to add “site:*.jp” to the search terms.


Another good tactic is adding Japanese as either your primary or secondary Google search language. This goes a long way to showing you only relevant results, but when you’re looking for number of results like in the case above your solution is the way to go (since changing your language only changes the order, and not the number of results).

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