日本語学校 vs 日本語の単語

1 日本語学校 = japanese langauge school
2 日本語の単語 = japanese words

Why the first words combination is without の?

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It might be because the first sentence, 日本語学校, is the name of a place, which is a word on its own. The second, 日本語の単語, translates to “words of Japanese.” I don’t think it would be correct to say “School of Japanese Language.”
The の particle is used to show that one thing is of another, for example 私の猫, which translates to “the cat of me.” (In English, it would be more natural to say “my cat” instead though.)
Therefore, the first is just establishing the existence of the Japanese Language School, and the second is implying that the words are Japanese.
I hoped this helped and happy 2023!

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日本語の学校 is also a thing that exists, but it’s not used as often. Same for 日本語単語. It’s just how these terms are used commonly. It’s very similar to how some compound words could be written with a space inserted, but one way of writing it is clearly more common.

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