So I’m trying to get things straight in my head about all the ways you can say you possess something.
First, there’s ある. This feels like the go-to most flexible way of saying you possess something. I’ve heard it in a bunch of scenarios and it can also be used for experiences (~たことがある) and abstract things (for example, 質問がありますか). However, it doesn’t always work. For example, if someone asks if you have a pen and you don’t, but your friend John does, then:
sounds kind of stiff to me.
Next is いる, which follows from ある and is basically used to talk about people (family, partners, potentially pets*). I have a lot of experience with this one, with questions like 兄弟がいますか or 彼女がいますか coming up quite often (I’m an ALT, students love asking it).
*With pets however 飼う is used (exclusively?) instead. For example, 犬が飼っています. But can 飼う be used for things other than pets? I feel like I’ve heard it used for other things but I can’t remember if I have.
Lastly (at least that I can think of) there’s 持つ, for things you are physically carrying on you. This one can be straightforward, for example if you’re holding a pen you can say ペンが持っています, but what if your pen is in your backpack? As far as I know that still works, but what if you’ve brought your pen with you but left it somewhere. Does 持つ still work, or would it be implied you still have it on you? Again, I think this works but I’m not completely sure where the line is drawn.
If there are any obvious ones I’m forgetting, please tell me. For example, WK teaches 擁する but either this isn’t really used or I don’t understand when to use it.
Any clarification on these would be appreciated!