Help disambiguating "capture" verbs 「捕・捉」

I just want to lay out my current understanding of these verbs…

捕 = Physical Capture (Take a one’s possession or control by force (i.e. grasp or seize))
捕える:To capture something [Transitive]
捕まえる:To capture something [???]
捕まる:To be captured [Intransitive]

捉 = Mental Capture (To become aware or conscious of something (i.e. perceive or grasp))
捉える:To mentally catch something [Transitive]
捉まえる:To mentally catch something [???]
捉まる:To be mentally caught [Intransitive]

Hoping and assuming the the above is correct my question is, what does 捕まえる and 捉まえる, express differently?

Also if it helps, I discovered this this vocab in a bunpro example sentence…

あっ、泥棒が逃げた!捕まえなさい!
Ah! The thief escaped! Seize him!

捕 has a large number of jouyou readings for verbs (readings that Japanese people learn in school).


らえる
らわれる
つかまえる
つかまる

捉 has only one.

とらえる

So 捕える, 捉まる, 捉まえる, etc… are all non-standard readings. If you’re reading a proper novel and someone uses those, I suppose then you can consider what nuance they have, but for now, it’s not worth being too concerned over.

So, let’s address the only word that has any overlap in the standard readings.

とらえる

「捉える」・・・ある物事の本質を理解すること。しっかりと引き寄せること
To understand the essence of something. To fully draw something close to you.

意味を捉える (understanding meaning)
要点を捉える (understanding meaning)
心を捉える (draw close meaning)
チャンスを捉える (draw close meaning)

「捕らえる」・・・逃げようとしている人や生物などをつかまえて、しっかりと押さえること
To securely capture an escaping person or creature.

動物を捕らえる
泥棒を捕らえる

There’s less to think about with that one.

Let me know if you still have other questions.

EDIT: I realized I kind of ignored this part

Because 捉まえる is not a jouyou reading, but you did go out of your way to ask about that specificially. つかまえる always means physically grasping something, and 捕 has the “capture an escapee” nuance, and 捉 has a nuance of grasping something with your hand, not something escaping. There’s no mental aspect to つかまえる.

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@Leebo Thank you so much for the very thorough explanation! This has eleviated much confusion and stopped me learning unnecessary verb readings.

I do have a follow up question if you would have the time. You mentioned 捕 having multiple jouyou readings. Why is this the case? Do they express and differences in meaning and nuance? Is this common for alot of verbs? I only ask because I feel the insight might come in handy in the future.

It’s not unusual. Are you familiar with how kanji were borrowed into Chinese and came to be read with Japanese words in addition to their borrowed Chinese readings? There were no “rules” to begin with, and people just chose kanji they felt expressed the concept they wanted to express. Much much later on, the government decided which readings they were going to teach in school.

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I wasn’t aware there was a time when kanji usage was so fluid and flexible. Though I guess that makes sense, I guess it takes time for something to be established as common place in terms of usage.

Thank you, thank you again @Leebo, you have been very very helpful! \(^o^)/