Example sentence help


#1

Hey all,

I just subscribed to wanikani and started on level 4. I’m only studying Japanese since one month, and I have focused mainly on kanji so my grammar is a bit short. I just ran into a new vocabulary where all three example sentences kind of confuse me, which hasn’t happened before.
Can anyone help me out with the following?:

  1. 母は、デパートへかいものに出かけました。
    Mom went out shopping at the department store.

Here, I know かいもの is a noun, but I don’t understand why there is no form of する here to indicate doing the shopping (I guess 出かける already performs that function?), and I don’t understand what the particle に does to かいもの in this sentence.

  1. おっとが子どもをつれて出かけたので、今日はドラクエ三まいです。
    Since my husband went out with kids, I can play Dragon Quest as much as I want.

So far I learned doing something “with” someone uses the “と” particle. Why is it “を” here?

  1. 日曜日は家族で海に出かけるの。
    I’m going out to the beach with my family on Sunday.

And the same question as 2, but this time “で” is used to mean with? Again, why not “と”?

Thank you for any help.


#2

There is no する because it’s not acting as a verb, に is being used here to connect it to the verb 出かけました. This is a verb that involves movement so it requires either に or へ.

を is being used in example 2 because it’s more like “my husband took the kids out”, read on the verb つれる if you’re confused.

I’m not entirely sure on this last one. I know で is like a context particle which is used to give extra information, like ペンで書く “I write with a pen”. I know what it means reading it, but why in this case it’s used instead of と
I can’t really say, maybe someone else better than me can explain it.


#3

In general, 〜に行く and similar (in this case 〜に出かける) mean "go to do ". In this case the thing being done is かいもの, shopping. Maybe someone else can explain why it isn’t 買い物しに出かける, but I feel like shopping in itself is something that can be done, so therefore it’s fine by itself.

つれる (連れる with kanji) means take or bring, and is a transitive verb, so it needs the thing or person being brought to be marked as a direct object with を. It’s not the case of him and the kids bringing something together, the kids are what’s being brought here.

I can’t really explain how it differs from 家族と or 家族と一緒に, the best I’ve got is that で does have a “by means of” sort of meaning to it, which can also extend to doing something together.


#4
  1. に can indicate purpose, so here it’s saying “went out for the purpose of shopping” – > “went out shopping”, so shopping (かいもの) is still a noun here and 出かけました is carrying out the action

  2. つれて (連れる) means to take along (with), and 出かけた means to have gone out, so together it’s a verb meaning “went out with” and を is marking 子ども as the direct object receiving the action

  3. で and と are very similar in meaning here, but the difference is that で is acting as a context particle, “a way of doing”, whereas と explicitly states who you’re going with. So for a clearer distinction:
    –> 家族で = “as a family”
    –>家族と = “with my family”


#5

家族で - “as a family”

How are you going to the beach? As a family.


#6

Thanks everyone! I see where I went wrong, now it all makes sense :slight_smile: