I thought that 上る is read as noboru and 上 alone is ue. But in sentences sometimes 上 followed by a different hiragana is still pronounced as nobo, even though the rule tells me that it should be ue. Can someone explain please?
I’m guessing in those cases you’re seeing a conjugation of 上る. For instance, in the past tense it would be 上った. Or in the potential form it would be 上れる. So just because you see something other than る after 上 doesn’t automatically mean it’s うえ.
Studying grammar will get you familiar with all the possible inflections of Japanese verbs, and then you’ll be able to notice if what comes next is part of a verb ending or if it’s a new word.
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