[aDoIJG] S 💮 A Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese Grammar

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A Dictionary of Japanese Grammar :white_flower: Home Thread

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Week
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Reading Entry Count Page Numbers Page Count
#21 May 25th さ to しかも 8 358 - 395 38
#22 Jun 1st したがっお to それでも 8 395 - 420 26
#23 Jun 8th それどころか to すぐ 8 420 - 441 22

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The さえ entry is another of those I found oddly long compared to how comparatively straightforward the grammar point seems to me


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さ

さ as a sentence-final particle is usually used by male speakers in very informal speech and it expresses the speaker’s encouragement, or their assertion to negate someone’s challenge, or their light touch comment, or their irritation about someone’s words or behavior, or opposition. さ is also used by both men and women to draw the hearer’s attention to something.

When a Wh-word is used with さ, the predicate part has to be の-nominalized. The non-nominalized version is totally unacceptable.

All the uses of さ in the examples can be replaced by よ. A few of the examples in the related expressions note will change to strictly female speech, because よ is attached to a noun or to a nominalized clause, but other than that, the crucial difference is that さ is far more informal than よ. This is why よ can be connected with both informal and formal forms but さ can be connected only with informal forms.

Wh-word よ/さ is always connected with informal forms, so there is no contrast between よ and さ.

Another sentence-final particle ずも can replace さ when the latter expresses encouragement or assertion to negate someone’s challenge.

The sentence-final particle ね is fundamentally different from さ, because the former indicates the speaker’s request for confirmation or agreement from the hearer, whereas さ indicates a male speaker’s assertion. But both can be used in a non-sentence-final position to draw the hearer’s attention to something. さ used this way can be used by both male and female speakers in very informal speech and sounds much more informal than ね. The excessive use of such ね and さ in a single sentence leads to vulgarity.

It was a bit difficult to look for TJPW examples (a single kana grammar item is difficult to ctrl+f for
), but I did find some mid-sentence ones!

Here is once again from Yuki Kamifuku, from that same post-match comments I've already linked haha from the 2024.01.20 show, where Kamiyu and Mahiro Kiryu lost their tag tournament match:

Hard mode: here’s the video. (Usual disclaimer that the transcripts are from shupro and the translation is mine and may contain errors.)

䞊犏「オマ゚、先週䜓調䞍良で䌑んでる代わりになんかおっきり真匥ちゃんずしおるから遠くたで行っお無酞玠トレヌニングずかチョヌやっおるず思ったんだけど」

Kamifuku: “You know, while I was out last week, I thought ‘surely since Mahiro-chan’s got it together, she’ll be off somewhere doing buttloads of anaerobic training right about now.”

桐生「ごめんなさいずくに無酞玠 なんですか」

Kiryu: “Sorry! I didn’t particularly do any anaerobic
 what was it?”

䞊犏「酞玠トレヌニング」

Kamifuku: “Hard training.”

桐生「トレヌニングは 」

Kiryu: “Training
”

䞊犏「しおなかったのか。もうどうするの、だっおさ、ゆきもゆきなんだけど、どうするこんだけ歎ばっかくっおさ、うちらの友情期間ばっか延びおさ、䞀回気合入れ盎そうず前回のベルトで負けお、Wi-Fiに。でも䞀回解散だヌずか蚀ったくせに、早々にやっおおさ、結果も残しおない。どうしたら良いず思う」

Kamifuku: “You didn’t? What are we going to do now—It’s my fault, too, but what are we going to do? For all this time we’ve just been kept going by the mere fact we’ve been doing it for a long time, so we just keep prolonging our friendship, and we tried to get fired up for a fresh start, but then we lost our chance at the belts, to Wi-Fi. But even though I said once that we were breaking up, we’re back at it again so soon, and still no results. What should we do?!”

桐生「どうしたらいいんですかねなんか、どうしよう 」

Kiryu: “What should we do?! What should we do
”

We can always count on Kamiyu for a grammar example illustrating vulgarity :saluting_face:.

さえ

Side note: I didn’t realize until I read this entry that さえ expresses “even” in non-conditional clauses, and “only” in conditional ones. I suppose that does make sense if you think about it


The particles が and を do not appear with さえ, the directional particles え and に optionally precede さえ, and the other case particles (hey we know what these are now!) must precede さえ.

When さえ is used in a conditional clause, the clause expresses such ideas as “if only”, “as long as,” and “the only thing someone needs is”. In other words, in “S1 (conditional with さえ), S2” S1 presents the only condition that must be met in order for S2 to be true. In this structure, the ば-conditional is most commonly used. The たら-conditional can be used but is less common. The なら-conditional is used only in limited contexts. The ず-conditional is unacceptable.

In conditional clauses, さえ can appear in various positions. The focus changes according to the position.

たで is also used as an emphatic marker and can replace さえ. たで, however, can’t replace さえ in negative sentences and conditional clauses.

The emphatic marker すら is very similar to さえ, but すら is more literary. すら can replace さえ except in conditional clauses.

The particle も also functions as an emphatic marker in some contexts, though it’s weaker than the others. First, も functions as an emphatic marker in negative sentences. It can also replace さえ after で. で and も are often used together as an emphatic particle.

But も in ordinary affirmative sentences does not function as an emphatic marker, and も can’t replace さえ in conditional clauses.

Found some TJPW examples! I looked for a conditional and a non-conditional example.

First up, here's from the 2023.09.18 show, which featured a very entertaining match where masters of chaos Hyper Misao, Pom Harajuku, and Raku teamed up against Rika Tatsumi, Miu Watanabe, and Himawari, putting poor AKB48 idol Shiori Aoki's referee skills to the test.

Hard mode: here’s the video. Some further context is that Rika Tatsumi is called the “White Dragon”.

らく「負けたした」

Raku: “We lost.”

ぜむ「いや、3人のチヌムワヌクは完璧だったし、おしりんさんも完璧だったんですよ」

Pom: “No, our teamwork between the three of us was perfect, and Oshirin-san was perfect, too.”

ミサヲ「完璧だった。え、䜕が起きた 途䞭でなんかさ、倧暎れした暎れドラゎンがいお。それさえなければ 」

Misao: “It was perfect. Huh, what happened? There was something in the middle of it, a rampaging dragon. If it weren’t for that
”

ぜむ「だっおレフェリヌのこずを あれ負けですよね」

Pom: “But doing that to the referee
 it should be a loss, right?”

ミサヲ「これ刀定芆る可胜性あるな」

Misao: “There’s a chance that the decision will be overturned.”

ぜむHIMAWARI「あるあるある」

Pom & HIMAWARI: “It’s possible.”

ぜむ「勝ちじゃない」

Pom: “Isn’t it a win?”

ミサヲ「アむドルの人を倱神させるこずなんお、できる おかしい。幻の勝利だったんじゃない」

Misao: “Knocking out an idol, is that something you can even do? It’s ridiculous. It was an illusory victory, wasn’t it?”

Next, here's a quote from the 2023.07.03 contract signing leading up to Mizuki vs Maki Itoh for the Princess of Princess championship at Summer Sun Princess.

Here’s a link to the video, and here’s the official transcript. Additional context is that these two have a lot of history together (they were tag partners, then broke up very dramatically because Itoh’s jealousy ate her alive and she was unable to handle Mizuki outperforming her), which Itoh has spent this whole feud basically trying to deny and brush past.

䌊藀「今回が4回目の挑戊になるんですけど、䌊藀は絶察取る気でいたすし。瑞垌に぀いおは闘いすぎおね、䌊藀は䜕がきおも倧䞈倫かなず思っおたす。もうすべおを受ける芚悟もできおるし、簡単に倒せる盞手じゃないこずも重々わかっおいるので。どっちが先に倒れるのかの勝負だず思っおたす。たあでもね、䌊藀はアメリカで修行もしおきたので、自信もあるので。このたた結果だけ残しお、䌊藀が勝っお、瑞垌からベルトを獲っお、昔から続く䌊藀麻垌vs瑞垌の物語を終わらせようず思いたす」

Itoh: “This will be my fourth time challenging for the belt, but I’m determined to win it. Concerning Mizuki, I’ve fought her so much that I think I’ll be fine no matter what she throws at me. I’m ready to take it all, though I know full well that she’s not an easy opponent to beat. I think it’ll come down to which of us drops first. And, well, Itoh has been training in the U.S., so I have a lot of confidence. I’m just getting results at this rate, so I’m going to win and take the belt from Mizuki, and finally finish the Maki Itoh vs Mizuki story that has been going on for ages.”

瑞垌「ベルトを獲っおから目たぐるしい日々でいろんなこずがあるんですけど、私はただただ途䞭だず思っおいお。過去ずかをみんなは芋るず思うんですけど、私はその過去を自分の気持ちだったり、応揎しおくださっおるみなさんの気持ちだったり、察戊盞手だったり、すべお愛を持っお闘っおきたので、その過去さえもちゃんず愛せおるなず思っおいたす。だから今回の闘いもちゃんず自分らしく、愛で闘いたいず思いたす」

Mizuki: “Ever since I won the belt, my days have been hectic and so much has happened, but I think I’m still only part of the way there. I think everyone sees our past, but for me, that past holds my feelings, and the feelings of everyone kind enough to cheer for me, and my opponents, and so on, and through all of that, I’ve fought with love, so even my past is something that I’m able to love completely. And so for this, too, I want to fight in my own way, with love.”

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Week 22 Begins!


Pages: 395 - 420

Entries: したがっお to それでも

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Wow, the weekly reading load for these portions is a lot, haha. I’m so behind
 :smiling_face_with_tear:

際(に)

際(に) is used to indicate a special occasion on which someone does something, so the phrase can’t be used on common occasions.

Only Vinf or N or demonstrative adjectives この, その, あの can be used before 際に. Vinf・nonpast and Vinf・past indicate incompletion and completion, respectively, in relation to the action in the main clause.

The particle に of 際に may be dropped. When に is dropped, the focus shifts from the occasion to what is described in the main clause.

際に is a formal expression that is often used with Sino-Japanese words. In the examples given in note 4 in which neither a Sino-Japanese verb/noun nor a honorific polite verb is used, 際に is unacceptable.

N に際しお is more formal than N の際に. When the former is used, N has to express a very special occasion. If N expresses an occasion which is not so special, N の際に can’t be replaced by N に際しお.

際に indicates the time when something special takes place, whereas 折に indicates an occasion when something ordinary takes place.

There is another expression 堎合, “case”, which is used in the form of Vinf 堎合 or N の堎合. 堎合 means “a suppositional case”, so an event that precedes it may not take place. So if the event is a real event, 堎合 can’t be used.

Here are a couple 際に examples from the Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling press conference on 2024.01.09 wherein Juria Nagano announced that she would be retiring from wrestling:

Here’s the video, and here’s the official transcript.

長野「今回は私のこずでこのような堎を蚭けおいただき誠にありがずうございたす。私、長野じゅりあは4月13日をもっお東京女子プロレスを卒業するこずずなりたした。理由ず臎したしおは今埌は芞胜の仕事によりいっそう力を入れおいきたいずいうずころがありたしお、その際にプロレスが䞭途半端になっおしたうのが自分ずしおも嫌だなずいうずころがありたしお、このような決断をいたしたした。たた昚幎、手の骚折もあり、その際に半幎間ほど仕事ができなかったずいう状況もあり、今埌の人生プランを考えた時に卒業しようず自分の䞭で決めたした。プロレスラヌずしお叶えたかった倢ずかやりたかったこずはただただたくさんありたす。ですが、長野じゅりあずしおやりたいこずややらなきゃいけないこずもあり、今回このような決断に至りたした。プロレスを始めおから2幎間、本圓に逃げ出したくなる時ずか、蟛いこずずかもあったんですけど、それよりもリングに立぀のが楜しくお。応揎しおくださった皆さんの声揎がすごく力になりたした。感謝しおいたす。プロレスを続けおきお東京女子プロレスの皆さんがすごくやさしくお。先茩方ずかも私、人芋知りなんですけど最初からいっぱい話しかけおくれたりずか、緎習を遅くたで芋おくださったりずか、埌茩も入っおきお、すごくいい環境でできたなず思っおいたす。本圓にこの環境でプロレスができたこずに感謝しおいたす。卒業たで3ヵ月あるので、プロレスラヌ・長野じゅりあずしお、燃え尜きるたでしっかりず闘っおいきたいず思いたす」

Nagano: “Thank you very much for giving me this opportunity to speak. I, Juria Nagano, will be graduating from TJPW on April 13. The reason is that going forward, I’d like to focus more on my work in the entertainment industry, and I don’t want to thereby end up pursuing pro wrestling half-heartedly, so I came to this decision. Also, I broke my hand last year, and I was unable to work for about six months, so when I thought about my plans for my future career, I decided to graduate. I still have dreams and things that I wanted to do as a professional wrestler. However, there are also things that I want and need to do as Juria Nagano, so I came to this decision. Since I started wrestling, for the past two years, there have been times when I really wanted to get away from it, and there were times when it was hard, but above all of that, I enjoyed standing in the ring. The cheers I’ve received from everyone supporting me have given me incredible strength. I’m grateful to all of you. Everyone at TJPW has been incredibly kind to me as I’ve kept going with pro wrestling. I’m a shy person, but from the very beginning, my senpais have talked to me a lot, and they’ve watched over me during practice until it got late, and new juniors have also joined, and I think everyone has made it a really nice environment. I’m truly grateful that I was able to do pro wrestling in this environment. I have three months until I graduate, so I’m going to fight hard as the pro wrestler Juria Nagano until my flame burns out.”

さすが

さすが expresses one’s strong feeling that something has turned out as one expected, or that something has turned out to be contrary to one’s expectation, and as one has not expected (Japanese sure doesn’t like to make things too easy for us, huh?).

In the structure さすが は X だ, は can be omitted.

さすがだけ may take either あっお or に.

In the case of さすが の X も, the speaker wants to say that something has occurred contrary to what one can expect from the characteristics of X.

さすが can be used like an exclamation in conversational Japanese.

The related expression note tells us that やはり / やっぱり is similar to さすが. However, やはり does not express the strong feeling of fulfillment of expectation that is expressed by さすが. やはり does not have prenominal nor pre-copula use.

I don't see さすが nearly as often as I see やっぱり in TJPW, but I found one from the 2024.02.10 show after Yuki Kamifuku challenged Yuki Arai for the International Princess title after Arai successfully defended her belt against Juria Nagano:

(No video because this happened in the ring.)

荒井「初めおの防衛戊ずいうこずで、卒業が決たっおいるじゅりあちゃんがベルトに挑戊するこずはきっずすごい勇気のいるこずだったず思うので すごい匷い気持ちを感じる詊合で、自分も闘えおよかったなず思いたした。ありがずうございたした。私はこの埌も誰が盞手でもベルトを守っお、もっずもっずいろんな景色を芋おいきたいなず思いたすので、これからも応揎よろしくお願いしたすここで䞊犏が登堎」

Arai: “This was my first title defense, and I know it took a lot of courage for Juria-chan, who will be graduating, to challenge for the belt
 I really felt her strong feelings in the match, and I’m glad that I was able to fight her, too. Thank you very much. I want to keep defending my belt from here no matter who my opponent is, and I want to see even more different scenery, so please keep supporting me.” (Kamifuku enters)

䞊犏「お疲れ様。詊合盎埌ずは思えないくらいのこの矎しいビゞュアル、さすがだなっお思うし。本圓にい぀も東京女子プロレスずアむドル業ず、どっちもすごい頑匵っお。名叀屋ず東京どっちも行き来しお忙しそうにしおるのに『忙しいでしょ 疲れおるでしょ』っお聞くず「いや、そんなこずないです」っお蚀えるかんじ。もう党然錻に぀いおないよ。愛されおるずころずかも党然ひがんでないんだけど、たぁ私も東京女子プロレスを盛り䞊げたい気持ちはあるのね。最近は色んなアゞアの囜に行っお、よく分からない食べ物食べたりしお頑匵っおるんだけど、ここで東京女子プロレスを盛り䞊げたい。そしおビゞュアルを倧切にしおいる同士、お互いの顔面を厩し合っお、そしおこのベルトを懞けお闘いあったらもっず盛り䞊がるんじゃないかなっお思うんですけど」

Kamifuku: “Great job! An unimaginably beautiful visual right after the match, as expected. You’re always working so hard both in TJPW and in the idol industry. It’s like how even though you seem so busy going back and forth between Nagoya and Tokyo, when people ask, ‘You must be busy, huh? Aren’t you tired?’ you’re like, ‘No, not really!’ I’m not at all sick and tired of it. I’m not at all jealous of how much they love you!! But, well, I also want to liven up TJPW. Lately I’ve been going to different countries in Asia and eating foods that I don’t really understand and working hard, but I’d like to make TJPW more exciting right here. And I thought, wouldn’t it get more exciting if we two people who care about looks break each other’s faces, and fight with that belt on the line?”

せい

せい is a dependent noun, so it needs a modifying word, phrase, or clause. せいで is used only when the result is undesirable (example (1) b. gets the full three Michelin question marks, haha). せいか, however, is used whether the result is desirable or undesirable.

Example (2) c. has 気のせい, which I personally think of as a specific word in and of itself rather than 気 + the せい structure


せいで is used when the speaker finds the cause of an undesirable result to be beyond their control. So if the cause is within the speaker’s control, せいで can’t be used. But せいか has no such restriction.

せい can’t be used to express a reason.

おかげ and せい are similar in that both express a cause, but the difference is that おかげ is used when the result is desirable, and it also implies that the person who attained the result is thankful for the cause. おかげ is sometimes used with an undesirable result for the purpose of sarcasm.

ため(に) can also express a cause (as well as a reason). And unlike せい, ため(に) doesn’t have the same restrictions.

I see せい fairly often in TJPW, usually used by the wrestlers when pointing blame at whoever took the pin in their team (thus costing them the match), haha. Here are several examples from the 2024.01.13 show after the team of Miu Watanabe, Pom Harajuku, and Rika Tatsumi lost in the main event (due to Pom getting pinned):

Hard mode: here’s the video. Further context is that there was a bit of friendly fire in this match, which certainly was not an おかげ situation for Pom


未詩「神戞で私は山䞋さんず前哚戊でもあったんですけど。あらためお挑戊者に決たっおからすごい匷みを感じたんですけど、でもあず3カ月近くあるので頑匵りたいなず思いたした」

Miu: “In Kobe, I had a preview match with Yamashita-san. I felt her amazing strength anew after being chosen as her challenger, but we have almost three months to go, so I wanted to try to do my best.”

蟰巳「それもあるし、タッグのトヌナメントも始たるので。せっかく癜昌倢もいるし、ぜむもいたので勢い぀けたかったなっおいうのず、あずみずぎょんのご家族の方も来おたので。私はすごいアピヌルしたかったので でもやられおしたっお、ちょっず耇雑な心境ではありたす。でも明日もあるので気合入れおいこうず思いたす、岡山」

Tatsumi: “There’s that, and there’s also the tag tournament starting. We were together as Daydream, and Pom was also there, so I wanted to gain some momentum, and Mizupyon’s family was there, too. I wanted to really show off for them
 But I lost, so my feelings are a bit mixed. But we have tomorrow, too, so I’m going to give it my all at Okayama.”

ぜむ「なんだか今日は盞手のチヌムがすごく匷くお。癜昌倢ず組んで今日は心匷ヌいっお思ったはずなんですけど、終わっおみお、あれ なんかすごい味方からもやられた気がするんですけど」

Pom: “The other team was really strong today. I was teaming with Daydream, so I felt veeeery reassured, but looking at it after the fact, I feel somehow like I also got really beat up by my teammates!”

蟰巳「ぜむのせいだよ」

Tatsumi: “It’s Pom’s fault.”

ぜむ「ぜむのせいじゃないですよね」

Pom: “Is it, though?”

蟰巳「完璧にぜむのせいです」

Tatsumi: “It’s completely Pom’s fault.”

ぜむ「はい、すみたせんでした」

Pom: “Yes, I’m sorry!”

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I know, it’s a lot. I personally have been skimming & coming back to an entry if I end up seeing in the wild.

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せめお

I think this one’s new to me!

せめお indicates the speaker’s/writer’s “minimally satisfactory level; he is well aware that he cannot realize an ideal state.” Each sentence ends in a direct or indirect expression of desire, such as たい, (ずいい)んですが, のに, (させお)ください, ようず思っおいたす. Of these, のに expresses counter-factual desire.

少なくずも is another adverb that means “at least”. But the difference between 少なくずも and せめお is that the former focuses on rather objective lower limits of number/quantity; whereas the latter on the speaker’s strong desire to realize a certain minimum level of satisfaction.

No せめお examples that I could find in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling!

次第

This took me a bit to wrap my head around when I first encountered it, haha. I don’t think my previous Yomichan dictionary was as clear as the one I have on Yomitan now


Vたす / VN 次第 and N 次第 だ/で mean "as soon as " and “depends on/depending on” respectively. In both cases, an action or state indicated by the preceding verb or noun is a prerequisite for another action or state expressed in the main prerequisite.

Note 2 was worded in a way that I found amusing, haha: “The Vたす of Vたす 次第 can hardly be する-verb, probably because it will create a sequence of し-し which is hard to pronounce.”

The Vたす forms of honorific, polite verbs are irregular.

For the 次第 structure, the main clause can’t be past tense.

Another structure, たらすぐ, has the meaning “as soon as”. The difference between Vたす / VN 次第 and たらすぐ is that the former expresses a planned sequence of two actions, whereas the latter can express any kind of sequence of two actions.

N 次第 だ in a few of the examples can be replaced by N による. But not all cases of N による can be replaced by N 次第 だ, because the former has a wider meaning: N による can indicate “cause” for something, “means”, or “source”, and it cannot be replaced by N 次第 だ in any of these because 次第 lacks these particular meanings.

Here's an example from the TJPW show on 2023.08.13, after Yuki Kamifuku lost to Miyu Yamashita in the finals of the Tokyo Princess Cup tournament:

Hard mode: here’s the video (the part quoted below starts around 2:53).

䞊犏「アンチを芋返せたそうですね。アンチもちょっず驚いおるんじゃないですか だから、ここからいた10代の子ずか緎習生の子ずか。たぁ別に東京女子じゃなくおもいいんです。なんか、どんな仕事やっおおもうぜえこず蚀われるこずあるず思うんですけど、もうワンチャン自己満でよくねっおいう䞖界に入っおきお。なんか負けないでほしいですね。呚りは呚り、自分は自分。人生を面癜くするのは自分次第なので。文句蚀われおも、もうダバくねみたいな。別に家がなくおも自分が楜しいず思えばそれでいいし。もう奜きに生きたらいいよっお思いたした」

(Did you triumph over your haters?)

Kamifuku: “Yes. Aren’t they also a bit surprised? So, from here, current teenagers and trainees and such. Well, it doesn’t have to be TJPW. I think there are things that people will say no matter what kind of work you do, but if you already find yourself in “what, like it’s wrong to have pride in myself?” mode then I don’t want you to give up. It’s your business, not theirs. It’s up to you to make your life interesting. If people complain about you, just be like ‘wow, pretty wild, huh?’ Even if you don’t have a house, it’s alright as long as you’re having fun. You should just live how you want to.”

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しかも

しかも has three basic uses: First, it’s used when one provides additional important characteristics of someone or something. Second, it’s used when one adds special information to a statement about a rather uncommon action or state. Third, it’s used when one provides information which is rather unexpected from the preceding statement.

In the second use, additional information can be provided with an independent phrase or with a sentence, but the version with an independent phrase is more common.

The first use of しかも can be replaced by その䞊, おたけに, or それに.

The second use of しかも can be replaced by それも.

The third use of しかも can be replaced by それでいお or (それ)にもかかわらず.

Here's an example from my most recent Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling translation, which was for the 2024.05.25 show, where Yuki Kamifuku teamed up with Aja Kong in her hometown Fujisawa (I actually slightly tweaked my translation after reading this entry, haha):

No video for this because it happened in the ring after the match. Some important context is that Kamiyu “accidentally” hit Aja with a move near the end of the match, which took Aja out of action for the end, though Kamiyu managed to get the win on her own.

䞊犏「ちょっず埅っお アゞャさん、違うんすよ。違うんすよ。自分ね、もう、ね 違うんすよ。いやでも3幎連続、こうやっお興行できお、そのうち3分の2アゞャさんが来おくれるなんお、ホントビックリっす。たた来おくださいよ」

Kamifuku: “Wait, Aja-san, it’s not like that! I didn’t mean it! I’m, well, it’s
 it’s not like that! No, but, the fact that we’ve been able to do these shows for three years in a row, and the fact that Aja-san has come to two thirds of them, I’m really shocked. Please come again!”

アゞャ「蹎らない」

Aja: “Are you going to kick me?”

䞊犏「蹎らないです。わざずじゃないんです。ホントにアゞャさんが今回も来おくれお、しかもコスチュヌムもおそろいの氎色で来おくれたした ただただペヌペヌの私が倧ベテランの思考をゞャックするっおいう玠晎らしいこずになっお、ありがずうずいう気持ちでいっぱいです。芪も来おるので、すみたせん。自分はアゞャさんを最初に芋た時はマゞで怖すぎお、ホントにあいさ぀もたずもにせずに逃げおいた蚘憶があるんですけど。でも私、ここだけの話なんですけど、プロレス界で盞圓お䞖話になっおいる存圚でしお、感謝しかないんです。アゞャさんのおかげで、アゞャさんが私を食事に連れおいっおくれたおかげで、いたは刺身ず䞀緒に倧葉が倧奜きになりたした。ありがずうございたす 藀沢垂民に䞀蚀お願いしたす」

Kamifuku: “I won’t. I swear I didn’t do it on purpose. Aja-san really did come again this time, and not only that, she came wearing matching light blue gear! It’s wonderful that someone who’s still a small fry like me can hijack the consideration of a great veteran, and I’m filled with gratitude. My parents are here, too, sorry. The first time I saw Aja-san, I was seriously scared, and I remember running away without even a proper greeting. But, and this doesn’t leave the room, she’s someone to whom I am very indebted to in the pro wrestling world, and I have nothing but gratitude to her for that. Thanks to Aja-san taking me out to dinner, now I love to have oba with sashimi. Thank you very much! Please say a few words for the people of Fujisawa.”

したがっお

S1 したがっお S2 is used to express that S2 naturally results from S1. The focus of the conjugation is more on the result than the cause.

したがっお is used either in written Japanese or in formal speech.

If what is expressed in S1 is a reason for what is expressed in S2, したがっお can’t be used; だから has to be used.

だから can replace したがっお in all of the examples, but not vice versa, because the former can express both reason-action and cause-result relations, but the latter expresses cause-result relation only.

No したがっお examples in TJPW! (Unsurprising because it’s written and/or formal grammar)

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そうかず蚀っお

Example sentence (B)

アメリカの方が土地も家も安いが、そうかず蚀っお、簡単に移䜏するわけにもいかない。

Land and housing are less expensive in America, but we cannot easily immigrate.

Wow, this book truly was written in a different time, huh? :sweat_smile:

そうかず蚀っお is used when one is inclined to accept what one’s conversational partner has said, or what has been mentioned in the preceding sentence, but this inclination is accompanied by a realization that it is impossible to accept its corollary due to some circumstance.

そうかず蚀っお always occurs with an explicitly or an implicitly negative predicate. It often occurs with わけに [は / も] いかない, but there are cases where an implicitly negative predicate is used.

そうかず蚀っお used in sentence-initial position can be replaced by disjunctive conjugations such as けれど(も), しかし, (そう)ですが. The same phrase used in non-sentence initial position cannot be replaced by such conjugations. (I’m enjoying the increasing ?? in the examples).

Disjunctive conjugations such as けれど(も), しかし, etc. can’t be replaced by the structure in question unless そうかず蚀っお satisfies the above condition.

I didn’t think I’d seen this one before, and sure enough, a search turned up no Toyko Joshi Pro Wrestling results, so I don’t think I’ve been exposed to it there, in any case.

そこで1

そこで can’t connect a cause and a result.

In general, when そこで is used, the situation presented as a reason is a special situation.

(Reading some of these examples, I’m realizing I sometimes have a bit of trouble differentiating a reason from a cause
)

In “S1 そこで, S2”, S2 usually represents a controllable action. S2 cannot be a command, a request, a suggestion, or an invitation.

それで and そこで are similar and are interchangeable in many situations. それで also can’t be used with a command, a request, a suggestion, or an invitation.

However, それで can connect a cause and a result while そこで can’t. Also, それで is used to mean “that’s why”. そこで can’t replace it in this use. And when それで is used, the situation does not have to be a special one, and nor does it have to be controllable.

I tried searching for this structure in TJPW but had a surprisingly hard time finding examples because the そこでs that I kept finding were all not this one. I think I managed to find one, though? This is from the 2024.02.17 show where rookie Wakana Uehara faced Miyu Yamashita, the ace of TJPW:

Hard mode: here’s the video.

䞊原「今日は山䞋さんずの初シングルで、ずっず山䞋さんずは闘いたいず思っおたので。倢プロレスの時に山䞋さんは他の遞手ず最終ミッションで闘っおお。私はその詊合を芋お、東京女子のトップの遞手はこんなに匷いんだなっおいうのを芋おたしたし。そこから倢プロレスが終わっお、デビュヌしおから1幎。たったくシングルマッチずか、タッグでもあんたり闘うこずがなくお。なのでホントに今日はすごく楜しみにしおた日でした。でもやっぱり実際闘っおみお、東京女子の顔ずいうか ゚ヌスっお呌ばれおる遞手はこんなにも匷いんだなっお思い知らされたずいうか。私もい぀か、䜕幎かかるか分かんないけど い぀かは東京女子の゚ヌスっお蚀っおもらえるような遞手になりたいっお倢があるので。その壁が高いほど、難しい倢かもしれないけど 倢が倧きいほど燃えるずいうか、頑匵っおやっおやるぞっお気持ちに今なっおるので。たた次闘う時は匷くなった姿で、い぀か山䞋さんみたいに東京女子の゚ヌスっお蚀っおもらえるような遞手になれるように緎習頑匵っお闘っおいきたいず思いたす。

Uehara: “Today was my first singles match with Yamashita-san, and I’ve always wanted to fight her. When I was in Yume Pro Wrestling, Yamashita-san was fighting another wrestler in our final mission. I watched that match, and I saw just how strong the top wrestler in TJPW was. From there, Yume Pro Wrestling ended, and I made my debut a year ago. I’ve not fought in very many singles matches at all, or tag matches, for that matter. So I was really looking forward to today. But actually fighting her, the face of TJPW
 the wrestler we call the ace, I realized just how strong she was. I have a dream that someday, I don’t know how long it’ll take, but
 someday, I want to become a wrestler who can be called the ace of TJPW. The higher the wall, the more difficult the dream may be, but
 the bigger the dream, the more fired up I get, or rather the more I feel now like I’m going to try to do my best. The next time we fight, I want to show that I’ve gotten stronger, and I’m going to keep fighting and training hard so that someday I can become the kind of wrestler who can be called the ace of TJPW like Yamashita-san.”

いたの党力は出せたそうですね。でも、党力は出したんですけど 山䞋さんのすごいずころっお闘う前から気迫がすごくお。䞀瞬、怖気づきそうな時もあったんですけど、お客さんの声がすごい 応揎しおくださる『わかなヌ』っお声が聞こえおきお。そこで気持ち切り替わっお、今日は党郚ぶ぀けられたかなずは思いたす」

(Did you show everything you’re capable of now?)

“Yes, I did. I gave it my all, but
 what’s amazing about Yamashita-san is that she has so much spirit even before the fight. For a moment, I almost lost my nerve, but the voices of the audience were so loud
 I could hear their voices cheering for me, calling ‘Wakanaaa!’ That helped change my mindset, and I think I was able to hit her with everything I have today.”

そこで2

In “S1. そこで S2” S1 represents an event and S2 an action at the time of the event.

S2 is often a command, a request, a suggestion, or an invitation.

そこで may appear in mid-sentence position in S2.

Examples of this type are much more plentiful in TJPW. Here's one from the 2024.01.03 press conference before Miyu Yamashita defended the Princess of Princess championship against Masha Slamovich:

Here’s the official transcript, and here’s a video of the whole press conference.

――぀ねづね甲田代衚にマヌシャ遞手ずのシングルマッチを芁望しおいたずのこずだが、それだけクオリティヌの高い詊合を芋せられる自信がある

――You said that you were constantly asking representative Koda for a singles match with Masha. You are confident that you can give a match that is such high quality?

山䞋「そうですね。ワクワクできる盞手なので。それを日本でも詊合したいなず思っお。アメリカでもシングルは2回やっおたすけど、ホントに2぀ずもマヌシャの奥深さずいうか 遞手ずしおここはこうだなっお思っおたら2回目に闘うず党然違う技を出しおきたりずか、リズムも違うので。日本で3回目になりたすけど、新たなマヌシャの匷さが芋れるんじゃないかなず思うので。そこで生たれおくる私の匷さもたぶんあるず思うので、そこは私が䞊回っお勝ちたいず思っおいたす」

Yamashita: “Yes, I am. Because she’s a very exciting opponent. So I wanted us to have a match in Japan as well. We’ve had two singles matches in the U.S., but in just those two matches, I saw the depth she has
 Just when I thought ‘this is what she can do as a wrestler,’ the second time we fought, she brought out totally different moves, and her rhythm was also different. In Japan, this will be our third match, but I think you’ll get to see Masha bring entirely new strengths to the table. I think my own strength will probably come out there, so I want to surpass her and get the win.”

It was honestly pretty helpful looking at examples of そこで and trying to figure out which use of it was happening in any given instance. I feel like I had internalized this one as “at that point”, haha, so the “so” meaning comes to me less intuitively.

そこを

そこを is used to express some positive efforts in spite of some negative situation mentioned either in the first half of the sentence or in the interlocutor’s line.

It’s often used to push one’s request in spite of an initial negative reaction. In this case, the sentence often takes the form of そこをなんずかでしょうか.

そこを can be replaced by そこのずころを without changing the meaning when そこを is used to express the speaker’s beseeching.

I had a bit of trouble finding examples of this one, too. I think maybe this is one? This was from Miyu Yamashita's comments after losing to Miu Watanabe at Grand Princess on 2024.03.31:

Hard mode: here’s the video (the part quoted below starts around 3:14).

山䞋「前哚戊では未詩ずだいぶ差があるず蚀っおいたが、今日の未詩は䜕が違った正盎、自分にも自信あったし差は感じおたしたけど、めちゃめちゃ詰められおるなっお気持ちはありたした。なので内心焊っおはいたんですけど、でも私なら絶察勝おるず思いたしたし。そのたた今日を迎えお詊合に実際なっお、トヌナメントで負けた時もありたしたけど、やっぱり未詩も私ず同じかんじでやられればやられるほど、苊しければ苊しいほど、そこを耐えお越えおくる子だったので。そこが今日負けたしたね。気持ちは党然負けおなかったんですけど、取られたしたね。それが結果だず思いたす。気持ちかな」

(You said during the preview matches that there was a large gap between yourself and Miu, but what was different about her today?)

Yamashita: “To be honest, I had confidence in myself and I felt that gap, but I had the feeling that it was rapidly shrinking. So I was internally anxious, but I thought that I was definitely going to be able to win. I went into today with that mindset, but in the match, I thought that the gap really has closed. I had lost in the tournament, but like me, the more Miu gets beaten, the more pain she’s in, the more she perseveres and overcomes it. And that is where I lost today. I didn’t lose to her in terms of mindset, but she got me today. I think that was the final outcome. I guess it was my mindset.”

And I guess that’s as far as I’ll be able to get until someone else posts, haha.

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Combo breaker!!

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そうになる

Vたす そうになる expresses the idea that something almost happens. It’s often used with “an extra adverbial phrases” (typo in the dictionary, lol) such as 危うく “narrowly” (wow, I don’t think I’ve seen that one before?) and もう少し / ちょっずで “a little more, then ~”, which reinforce the idea of almost.

It’s restricted to non-volitional verbs (verbs that express something that is beyond human control). Since passive and potential forms are regarded as a non-volitional verb, they can also be used with そうになる. If the verb is a volitional verb, Vたす そうになる can’t be used if the subject is the speaker themself.

However, if the entire situation expressed by the whole sentence expresses a situation that is beyond human control, a volitional verb can be used even if the subject is the speaker themself.

If the subject is someone other than the speaker, Vたす そうになる can be used, even if the verb is a controllable verb, because whatever happens to the third person is considered to be beyond the speaker’s control.

All the examples of Vたす そうになる can be replaced by もう少しちょっずでするずころだった, except when Vたす そうになる is used in a dependent clause. The latter expression focuses on both the impending aspect of something and the point of time at which something occurs, but the former focuses only on the impending aspect. The verb of Vたす そうになる is restricted to a non-volitional verb, but もう少しちょっずでするずころだった is free of this restriction.

Here's an example from a very unique Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling show: Hyper Misao's produce show HYPE! 2 on 2024.04.19:

(No video link because this was said in the ring). I suppose a bit of extra context is that this show is a bit different from normal pro wrestling in that it’s acknowledged as a performance in kayfabe (typically in pro wrestling, the characters openly referring to the fact that pro wrestling is scripted and the results are predetermined is a major no-no, especially in Japanese wrestling, where kayfabe is more protected).

So the segment below comes from the portion after the performance (which was substantially more theatrical than typical pro wrestling) where the wrestlers are speaking candidly about how the show came together.

This show featured exactly one actual pro wrestling match: Raku, who was the protagonist of the show, faced Aja Kong in a singles match. The match itself exists in sort of an in-between space with regards to kayfabe, where it is considered more real than the rest of the show, while also still being technically part of the performance. So even though the show itself took place within a dream, and it featured alternate universe versions of the wrestlers, Raku’s match with Aja Kong within that performance is treated as real.

With that out of the way, here’s the portion with the actual quote:

アゞャ「らくちゃん ごめんね。ごめんよ。ごめんごめん、ごめんねヌ。でも、今日1日の出来事を裏でずっず芋おたんですけど、らくちゃん最高にカッコよかったです。最埌の最埌にこんな倉なおたけが飛び出おくるずも知らずに、ね。その前の゜ロ曲歌っお終わりだず思ったよな。みんなもそう思っおるよ。あれで倧団円だず思ったよね。でもこういう堎面でらくちゃんず初めお察戊できお、ホントに嬉しかったです。ありがずう。でもやっぱりらくちゃんずは組む方がいいから、今日、こんな倉な目にあわせたプロデュヌサヌがいるかあ、2人でガッツリぶっ朰したしょう」

Aja: “Raku-chan
 I’m sorry! I’m sorry. Forgive me! But I’ve been watching all of the events of today from backstage, and you were so cool. Even without knowing that such a strange bonus chapter would pop up at the end. I thought it was over after the solo song right before that. Everyone else thought so, too. You all thought that was the grand finale, huh? But I’m really happy I got to face Raku-chan for the first time in a scene like this. Thank you. But I think it’s better to team up with Raku-chan, so let’s see if the producer who made us undergo such an experience is here, and let’s crush her together.”

アゞャは先に退堎。入れ替わるように他の面々がリングに䞊がり、らくの呚りを囲む。

Aja exits. Replacing her in the ring, the other wrestlers enter and surround Raku.

蟰巳「らく、ホントにお疲れ様泣。ホントによくやったよ。すごい長い長い倢だったね。でも珟実でこうやっおらくの歌ず、らくのアゞャ様ずの詊合を芋お、私はめちゃくちゃ心臓をギュヌッず぀かたれたした。最高だった お疲れ様ヌ よかったよかった、本圓に。チョコップル 」

Tatsumi: “Raku, you did amazing.” (cries) “You did such a good job. It was a long, long dream. But seeing Raku sing like this in the real world, and seeing her match with Aja-sama, it really grabbed me by the heart. It was amazing! You did so well! It was really, really good. Shokopple
?”

䞭島「HYPEが決たったのはちょっず前だけど、台本を曞き終わるか終わらないくらいでハむパヌミサヲがアメリカで骚折したんです。けっこうバタバタで、けっこう時間なかったんですよ。今回の興行。でもね、らくは誰よりも䞀番最初にセリフを芚えおきたし、䞻圹やるっおミサヲに蚀われおから、間違いなく䞀番努力しおきたず私は思いたした。アゞャさんずの詊合を芋お私は泣きそうになっおしたいたした。成長したした。えらい すごくダメヌゞがあるず思うんですけど、らくの䞀蚀いいですか」

Nakajima: “HYPE was scheduled a little while ago, but just as the script was about to be finished, Hyper Misao broke her ankle when she was in the U.S. So we were rushing to get it all together, and we didn’t have much time, this time around. But, y’know, Raku was the first person out of everyone to memorize all of her lines, and ever since Misao told her she’d be playing the lead role, I think without a doubt that she’s the one who’s been working the hardest. Seeing her match with Aja-sama, I almost cried. She’s grown so much. It’s amazing! I know you’ve taken a lot of damage, but can you say a few words, Raku?”

その䞊

その䞊 is used to introduce an emphatic statement. So an emphatic marker like たで often appears in the added statement.

侊(に) can replace その䞊.

おたけに can replace その䞊 without changing meaning, although おたけに is slightly more casual.

それに is similar to その䞊 except that the added statement is not emphatic. So this statement is often supplementary information.

I couldn't find any examples of その䞊 in TJPW, but I found a lot of その䞊でs. I'm not exactly sure of the full distinction there? In any case, here's a その䞊で from the 2024.01.06 Inspiration show after Miu Watanabe won the battle royale which earned her a shot at Miyu Yamashita's belt (hey, this is another one that I tweaked a bit thanks to reading this dictionary!):

Hard mode: here’s the video.

山䞋「いよいよ3月31日䞡囜囜技通の盞手がこのベルトを懞けお闘う盞手が決たりたした。きょうの詊合は最初から最埌たで芋おたしたけど、䞊犏、䞭島、瑞垌、リカ。この4人を倒しおる姿を芋おやっぱ匷いなっお。詊合のなかでの未詩はやっぱり匷いなっお思ったし、すごいなあずも。率盎な気持ちずしおは思いたした。それず同時に䞡囜ずいう倧舞台で、そしお東京女子にずっおすごく倧事なこの倧䌚のメむンで未詩ず闘えるっおいうのはものすごく嬉しいですし、高たる気持ちがすごくありたした。ただたぁでも絶察に負けないんで、そこだけは揺るがないずいうか自分のなかの絶察な自信があるんで。未詩には党力で私を倒しにしおきおもらっお。その䞊で、受けた䞊で私らしくチャンピオンずしおこのベルトをもっずもっず東京女子プロレスの゚ヌスずしお私が闘い続けお匷くありたいなず思いたす。みなさん応揎よろしくお願いしたす。

Yamashita: “Finally, my opponent is set for who I’ll be facing on March 31 at Ryogoku Kokugikan with this belt on the line. I watched today’s match from the beginning to the end, and Kamifuku, Nakajima, Mizuki, Rika, seeing her beat all four, I thought she was quite strong. I thought Miu was really strong in the match, and I thought she was amazing. Those were my honest feelings. At the same time, I’m very happy and excited to get to face Miu on a big stage like Ryogoku, and in the main event of such an important show for TJPW. That said, I absolutely won’t lose. On that, I’m unwavering—I have the utmost confidence on that point. I want Miu to come at me with everything she has to try to defeat me. In addition, after taking her on, I’m going to continue to be strong and fight in my own style as the champion, as the ace of TJPW, while I bear this belt. I look forward to your support.”

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I think this is probably 䞊で, which gets an entry later in the intermediate volume (”a compound particle that is used to express a preparatory action for a future important action"). You can see the on the fly speech correction/clarification from その䞊で to 受けた䞊で. That would make it something like “Having accepted her challenge, I’m going to continue to be strong and fight in my own style etc”. But I’m not super confident about this.