[aDoIJG] K – M 💮 A Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese Grammar

Entries K – M

A Dictionary of Japanese Grammar :white_flower: Home Thread

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Start Date
Reading Entry Count Page Numbers Page Count
#8 Feb 24th かえって to 〜から〜に至るまで 8 80 - 101 22
#9 Mar 2nd 〜から〜にかけて to 結構 8 101 - 127 27
#10 Mar 9th この to ことはない 8 127 - 147 21
#11 Mar 16th く to または 8 148 - 174 27
#12 Mar 23rd 目 to もの(だ) 7 174 - 192 19

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I wanted to look for examples of かえって in the manga I read, not sure that I have encountered it before, but I get too much results of 帰って spelt in hiragana.

@ChristopherFritz does it break your computer if you look for examples of “かな” in the manga you read? :laughing: not even joking, I asked mine to see for fun how many thousands, and it’s still computing

edit: now it’s done, 30942 results

  • Running search (no hard drive cache): 13 seconds.
  • Running search (with hard drive cache): 1 second.
  • Loading HTML page listing results: 1 second.
  • Results returned: about 11,000

I encountered the same.

Just so I'm making use of that かな search I ran...




This one comes up very rarely in my reading (after filtering out the 帰って-in-kana search results, I had something like three).

Here's one instance.

Takeo is concerned about how his girlfriend, Yamato, is doing at her first job. He doesn’t want her to know he’s watching over her, so he keeps hidden. Takeo’s friend is less certain about Takeo’s hiding spot:


It is also written 却(かえ)って if the analyzer can give the dictionary form.

1 Like

About the register of 必ずしも〜ない – the book says the following:

Among these partial negative expressions, kanarazushimo and subete is much less colloquial than the rest.

Does that mean that 全て and 必ずしも are about on the same level of formality? I’ve never really consciously heard 必ずしも been used, but for 全て it’s mostly clear, so if that could be a benchmark…

I vaguely suspect 必ずしも is more formal, though.


Learned about this one in the 逆に entry! かえって is used when one describes a situation/event that occurs contrary to one’s expectation.

The related expression note mentions that the adverb むしろ “rather” can replace all the uses of かえって in the example sentences here. However, there are many cases in which むしろ can’t be replaced by かえって because the former is used when “between the alternate choice between action/situation/characterization one is judged to be better than the other” (here’s where the dictionary wording lost me, though I think it’s just saying that むしろ is used when an alternate action/situation/characterization is judged to be better than another), but かえって lacks this meaning. Looks like むしろ awaits us in the advanced volume, if the club makes it that far, haha.

I don’t see かえって very often at all in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling (it’s 逆に country over there) but I think I did manage to find one!

This is from after Aja Kong faced Yuki Arai in a singles match on 2023.03.18. Aja predictably obliterated Arai, but Arai put up a good fight:

Hard mode: here’s the video. Aja talked so much in this, shupro actually split up her comments into multiple paragraphs rather than the usual single block I’m used to seeing in their transcripts. As usual, the translations are mine and may contain errors.


Aja: "This is our first singles match, but we’ve fought twice in tag matches. So I thought I knew what she was capable of, especially since our last match was a month ago. Well, she said she was going to show her growth over a month, and she was able to fight me head-to-head without using any cheap tricks. How much could she hit me, Aja Kong, with that special thing she has, that Finally? That was the path she chose. In a sense, I think it was the right call, but her strategy… I don’t know what she thought, but she did catch me with it, even if just a little. When I saw that, in a flash she got me thinking about taking anything she might dish out, how I was going to escape and recover. I’d thought that no matter how much I took, I could still see a chance to win, so I think she got me good.

とはいえ、あんなにいろんな角度でFinallyを受けた人はいままであんまりいないですよね? きついっすね、やっぱり。コーナーからのやつと…エプロンからのやつはちょっとまずかったね。ドンピシャすぎて。まさかそこでくるとは思わなかったので、ちょっと油断しましたね。場外で反撃したので、さぁここからお仕置きタイムだと思ったら、まさかあそこでくるとは思わなかったので。レフェリーがカウントを数えてくれてたのでちょっとまずいなとは思いましたけど。でも逆を返せば、あそこでちょっと息を整えられたので。まぁあの状況、今日の彼女でいけばFinallyを狙ってくるだろうというのはリングに上がった時点で分かったので、そこを追撃できたのはよかったなと。そこからはもうこっちのペースだなと思ったので。でも、もっと色んな…小細工って言ったら変ですけど、最初の時みたいにスリーパーとかいろんなことでかき回すようなことをしてくると思ったんですけど、対等に自分のもてるものでくるというのが今回の彼女の選択肢だったなと思うので。

That said, there hasn’t really been anyone else who has taken the Finally from so many angles, has there? She was very tough after all. The one from the corner, and the one from the apron… those were a bit of a problem. Her aim was dead on. I really didn’t think she would come at me there, so I was a bit careless. I fought back outside the ring, so I thought, ‘well, it’s execution time after this,’ but I really didn’t think she’d approach. The referee was giving the count, so I thought that wasn’t good. But on the other hand, I was able to catch my breath. Well, in that situation, I knew when I entered the ring that she’d be angling for the Finally, so I’m glad that I was able to go after her. From there, I think I had control of the pace. It’s awkward to call them ‘cheap tricks’, but I thought she’d try to mix it up with various tricks like that sleeper hold she did in our first match, but I think she chose this time to come at me with what she had as an equal.


I certainly didn’t expect to be pushed so hard. I don’t like the thought of this being the end, so I called out, ‘Hey, let’s do it again.’ I can’t predict what kind of strategy she’ll show up with next time, which makes her scarier. What kind of transformation will she undergo in the future after this? What kind of pro wrestler will she become? I guess it depends on that, but I’m even more scared of her in the future."


Adjectives can’t precede 限り, and nouns must be followed by the copula である (or でない).

間は “while” and うちは “while” are used in similar contexts, and they can be used in place of 限り if the 限り clause indicates a time interval. But they can both occur with adjectives, while 限り can’t.

Here's an example from TJPW's 2022.08.28 show with a women-only audience! This was after Nao Kakuta and Mahiro Kiryu teamed up against Moka Miyamoto and Juria Nagano:

Hard mode: here’s the video.

桐生「女性限定興行でした。やったー、勝てた! ありがとうございます」

Kiryu: “This was a women-only show. Yay, we won! Thank you!”


Kakuta: “Don’t mention it. It was a team effort, right?”


Kiryu: “How do I put this… I was empowered by feminine strength.”


Kakuta: “For the first time, I was surrounded by women as far as the eye could see. They called my name and clapped for me. At the end, they applauded me all the way back through the gate. I was so happy, and this new backdrop is so cute, huh? After this show, I hope we can bring in more women, and make TJPW even more fun!”


Kiryu: “Let’s have some fun!”


限り is preceded by either a noun or a number with a counter. Nouns before 限り are usually those which indicate a certain time. N限り is used when a repeated or on-going action, event, or state lasts only until a certain time.

I guess I have a question with example (b):


From today on I will give up both drinking and smoking.

My gut interpretation when I read this example is that the speaker is giving up drinking and smoking just for today. How do we know that it’s from today on? I’m wondering which clues I’m missing which suggest that context…

I found a TJPW example for this one, though it's unfortunately a sad context. This was from the press conference they released on 2023.12.31 after Nao Kakuta had to relinquish the tag belts due to her tag partner Hikari Noa having to take time off from wrestling because of her health:

Here’s the video (the part quoted below is the first thing Nao says), and here’s the official transcript.


"The fact that I have to relinquish the first belt I ever won is really disappointing, but since the title match on January 4 has already been set and we won’t be able to stand in the ring together for it, at that point, I personally feel that Free WiFi has already lost. So, I have decided to accept the fact that we’re giving the belts up this time. Today, I have to sort out my own thoughts, and after the break, I’m going to do my best in 2024 with a refreshed mindset.”


I was a bit surprised to see this one in the intermediate volume, as this grammar always seemed pretty straightforward to me and I learned it as a beginner, haha.

The first note points us back to the か1 entry in the previous volume and says that the ~か~か construction is used when one is not sure about two choices or possibilities. Normally it’s used to deal with specifically two choices or possibilities, but more than two かs can be used. If the same verb is repeated, the second one can be replaced by どうか (as we read about in the basic volume).

No examples for this because I don’t want to sort through all the results in a ctrl+f search for か…


When I read this, I thought “oh let me get my 新完全 N2 grammar book, there’s like six different points on 限り in there, one of them should explain”, but not one of them did??

Maybe it’s like “today finally” or “today I reached the limit” or something?

If no one else has an explanation I’ll go and ask Reddit about it.


I think 今日限りで means “until the end of today” - 限り is attached to the timeframe, not the action. And then it’s paired with やめます - I will stop (not: “I will refrain from”). So the stopping is an instantaneous action that will take place today (and then the being-stopped mode is carried on into the future, but that is not mentioned in the Japanese sentence).

Found a similar example in daijiten:


This makes so much sense, thank you! In that case the ADoIJG translation seems a little unfortunately chosen.



The sentence particle かな is used when one asks oneself about something. As the notes describe it, in essence かな is a marker of monologue question, so this cannot be used as a straightforward question addressed to others. It can be used as such if it’s a yes-no question and if the addressee is an equal or younger one.

If one asks what one should do, Vvol has to be used.

Note 3 surprised me! It says that かな is normally used by a male speaker, but it is often used by a female speaker, too, in casual spoken Japanese. The note gives かしら (in the basic volume) as its normal counterpart. Hilariously, I see かな all the time, and かしら extremely rarely, so I feel like in the modern day, perhaps they deserve to swap volumes…

I had no impression of this being gendered speech at all, though I could easily be wrong about that! But I see it quite often in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling, so it appears to be used by modern women in their 20’s and 30’s even in not casual Japanese.

Honestly, I feel like I most often see it used right before と思う? At least in the context of Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling.

Here are a few examples from the TJPW show on 2024.02.10 after Yuki Kamifuku challenged Yuki Arai for the International Princess Championship:

Hard mode: here’s the video.

上福「挑戦表明をしてきました、珍しく。そうね、荒井ちゃんは数年前に東京女子にやってきてから、ホントにどんどん人を抜いていって。しかも模範解答のような愛されるキャラで、ビジュアルも最高に良くて。アイドル業とプロレス業をホントにどっちも引っ張ってって活躍しているとってもいい子、スーパーエリートだなと思って。昔からエリートってちょっといじめたくなるじゃないですか。わかります? めちゃくちゃテスト勉強してる子がおなか痛くなればいいのに、みたいな。そういうのたまにあるんで。いがみの心じゃないけど、そういうのでたまには誰かに食って掛かってみようかなって。そして私とゆきちゃんが、お互いビジュアル大事にしてる私たちがぐちゃぐちゃにし合うところって盛り上がるかなと思って挑戦しました。頑張りまーす。

Kamifuku: “I declared a title challenge, which is rare. Well, since Arai-chan came to TJPW a few years ago, she really has been surpassing more and more people. Not only that, but she’s a textbook example of a beloved character, and looks-wise, too, she’s the best. I think she’s super elite, an amazing girl who’s very active in and is truly leading the way in both the idol industry and the pro wrestling industry. You always get a little bit of an urge to bully the elite, don’t you? You know what I mean? Like, ‘I hope that kid who’s studying super hard for the test gets a stomach ache.’ I feel that sort of thing sometimes. I don’t have an evil heart or anything, but sometimes I just want to lash out. And I thought about Yuki-chan and I, who both care a lot about looks, making a mess of each other and getting fired up, so I challenged her. …I’m going to do my best!”


必ずしも is used with a negative predicate, and typically the final predicate is とわ限らない. 必ずしも~ない is often used in a proverbial expression in which the tense of the final predicate is usually nonpast, but it can be used with past tense.

The related expression note tells us that 必ずしも~ない expresses a partial negative. This can also be expressed by expressions like みんなは~ない, 全部は~ない, すべては~ない, and いつもは~ない.

必ずしも and 全て are much less colloquial than the rest. 必ずしも always requires a negative ending, but the others do not.

Unsurprisingly, could not find this one in TJPW!


I don’t think I’ve encountered this one much, and I found the example sentences pretty tough! The first note says that かねる is often used in formal spoken or written Japanese (ah, that’s why I haven’t seen it…) to express politely that the speaker/writer cannot do something owing to some circumstance.

The negative version Vます かねない is actually a double negative (this will be easy to remember, I’m sure…), so it literally means “can do something” but it actually means “it is very possible” or “might”.

(It is very possible I’ll have to reference this entry again in the future, I can tell you that now…)

A verb that can take かねる is a verb that takes a first person human subject. In contrast, the verb that can take かねない can take either the third person human subject or the third person non-human subject.

None of the regular potential forms can take かねる either, because it creates double potential meaning. There are two exceptions: 分かる “can figure out” and できる “can” (it says “used with a Sino-Japanese compound”, which I believe means suru verbs?) can take かねる.

Example (g) is an idiomatic case which comes from Vます of 待ちかねる “cannot wait” and is exceptional in that it takes a third person subject unlike other cases. No other combination like お待ちかね is possible.

かねる takes the first person, but when the main predicate is in the progressive form, かねる can take the third person (this is similar to 思う, I think?).

Hey, here’s our friend がたい in the related expressions note! にくい, too. The crucial difference is that かねる conveys the meaning of “cannot” but the other two don’t; rather they convey the meaning of “hard to do something”.

I found this one a little too hard to search for, so I gave up trying to find it in TJPW.


This construction is used to express a wide range of coverage, and is used primarily in written Japanese. I don’t remember ever having encountered it before.

It’s replaced by ~から~まで in spoken conversation, which I have seen a whole bunch. ~から~に至るまで can’t express range of physical distance or time, so ~から~まで has to be used in that case.

I don’t know why I even bothered searching for this one, haha, but I could find no examples in TJPW.


Mmm, I wondered if this is something where the norms have slid sideways over time so かしら is more “only if you want to come over as very feminine/girlish” and かな has drifted from masculine towards neutral. (And we’ve discussed before how what the dictionary presents as a straightforward “male speech vs female speech” dichotomy is way more complicated than that in reality.) But I don’t get anywhere near enough non novel input to be at all confident about what is or isn’t common.


I learned most of my Japanese from 女子高生 and my gut feeling says かな is acceptable for me as a young female speaker in very casual contexts, but, like, barely? Or recently, as in only for young people among themselves? The な ending in general feels a bit tomboyish or wild. それね vs. それな is another example.

Not completely sure about this, just a feeling. As foreigners, we always have more leeway anyway with these things, but still.

(かしら feels way to stiff for me to use with タメ口, but I’m not sure if that’s just a generational thing and an おばさん in her 50s would use it normally)


Don’t think I’ve ever seen this one in the wild

Was a bit surprised that there is no mention or example of using it as answer to something:
“do you want more?”
「結構です」= “no thanks, it’s fine”.
Maybe that’s a new usage compared to the time of writing of the dictionary?


Week 9 begins

March already? Hope things are going well for you all.

Entries: 〜から〜にかけて to 結構
Pages: 101 - 127



The note says that the かけて in this construction is the Vて of the verb かける whose basic meaning is “to hang something over something else”. This basic meaning is reflected in the meaning of the structure, that is, “extended span of time/space across time/spacial boundaries.” I have a hard time wrapping my head around some of the かける uses, so maybe this’ll help me remember it a bit better.

~から~まで is similar to this construction, but it indicates a spacial/temporal/quantitative beginning with an end point that’s clear. ~から~にかけて indicates a spacial/temporal beginning with an end point that is not clear.

Couldn’t find any Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling examples of this one, though it felt familiar to me so I think I’ve learned it in a textbook before.


This construction occurs with a main clause in the negative form, S1からと言ってS2 {わけにはいかない / ことはない / etc.} and is used when the speaker expects the hearer (or someone else) to think S2 because of S1 but disagrees with it or denies it, or when the hearer (or someone else) does something because of S1, but the speaker disagrees with that action.

It can be contracted to からって in conversation.

から can’t be used in place of からと言って. I had to read the point about the scope of わけにはいかない in the related expressions note I. a few times before I feel like it made sense to me…

ても and たって are similar to からと言って, but unlike the latter, sentences with ても and たって don’t convey the speaker’s disapproval of using S1 as a justification for S2.

Couldn't find any からと言って examples in TJPW. I had a little better luck with からって, and I think I might even be able to improve a previous one of my translations thanks to reading this entry! This was from after Runa Okubo defeated Haru Kazashiro in their singles match at Wrestle Princess on 2023.10.09:

Hard mode: here’s the video. Transcript is from Shupro like always. Here’s the first chunk:


Okubo: “I got my first win! I did it! I’m the youngest in TJPW and people often underestimate me, but because she’s the closest to me in age, I had a chance. I don’t want to lose to her in elbow strike exchanges and such, and I don’t want to be looked down on. I did elbow strikes, flying moves, and a new Boston crab hold. I’m happy that I could win and show people that I’m strong. I didn’t have a lot of confidence that I could get my first win, but I struck with my elbows and other moves driven by the feeling that I didn’t want to lose. I finally got my first victory on my own.”

Now here’s the sentence in question: “これからも、やっぱ勝ったからって次負けるのが自分でもイヤなので…何回もハルから、いや、みんなから奪えるように頑張って試合していきたいと思います.”

Here was my previous attempt at a translation: “From now on, since I won here, I’d hate to lose the next one… I want to do my best in my matches so that I can steal the win from Haru over and over again—no, from everyone.”

Here’s the new attempt: “From this point forward, even though I won this time, I’d still hate to lose the next one… I want to do my best in my matches so that I can steal the win from Haru over and over again—no, from everyone.”

It’s cool because I couldn’t quite figure out what she was trying to say with the から there, but as it turns out, it was a whole different construction! This makes a lot more sense!


I always think of weather forecasts for ~から~にかけて because it feels like a set phrase for indicating the areas with rain/sun/etc.



I’m not sure I’ve seen this one before? The notes say “the conjectural auxiliary かろう is the contracted form of the no longer used Adj(い) くあろう, and あろう is the conjectural form of ある.”

Interestingly, this can be connected only with an Adj(い). When Adj(な) and nouns are connected with かろう, they have to be negative, because the negative ない is an Adj(い). Verbs cannot be connected with かろう.

だろう can replace かろう without any change of meaning, but the connections for the two auxiliaries are different. And かろう cannot be connected with the past tense, but だろう can. The most basic difference between the two is that だろう can be used in both spoken and written Japanese, but かろう can be used only in written Japanese (probably why I don’t remember having seen it anywhere!).

My cursory search did not turn up any examples in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling.


This construction is used to indicate a manner in which someone does something. When it’s used in a main clause, the manner is under focus.

When a する verb is involved in Vます-方, the noun part of the verb is followed by a の. Also, the direct object of the verb in Vます-方 is marked by の, not by を. So の occurs twice when it’s a する verb.

Expressions like ような話し方をする or ようなものの言い方をする can be interpreted in two ways in some contexts.

Long related expressions section for this one. It starts by saying that in some cases, the manner in which someone does something is expressed by the adverbial form of an adjective. But “Adj(い/な) Vます-方をする” and “adverbial form of Adj(い/な) V” are not always interchangeable.

The dictionary gives three rules: First, the adverbial forms of some adjectives cannot be used as manner adverbs (basically an adverb to mean “in such and such a manner”). Second, Adj(い/な) Vます-方をする cannot be used when the manner can be described objectively without involving any personal impression. Third, Adj(い/な) Vます-方をする cannot be used to describe how a person feels.

The entry also compares X ように Y and X ような Vます-方をする, which both indicate a manner in which someone does something. However, the first is used when expressing an exact likeness. Because of the “exactness” that X ように Y implies, this expression is unnatural if it’s unreasonable to expect that someone does something exactly in the way indicated by X.

Here's an example from the TJPW press conference on 2024.01.03, the day before their annual イッテンヨン event, where Yuki Arai would be challenging Max The Impaler for the International Princess Championship:

Here’s the official transcript, and here’s a link to the whole press conference, though it’s decently long (and I’m not timestamping the portion quoted below).


――Are you worried about being able to defeat them?


Arai: “In all of Max’s matches that I’ve seen, they’ve never lost, and their incredible power… I’ve seen a lot of matches where they show that power in different ways. I felt a fresh sense of just how scary of a wrestler they are, but since no one has beaten them, I think it would be awesome if I won. I’m sure there’s a way to win somewhere, and I want to find it.”



Pretty sure I see 良(よ)かろう, and to a less extent, なかろう, once in a while, but not sure about everything else about the conjunction.


I’m a bit behind because life but really enjoyed getting back into the book today.


Same. That entry broke my brain a bit, especially this one example sentence:


He might (lit. can) do any stupid thing.

And I think this feeling of my brain breaking and taking on a new shape while trying to wrap itself around a new concept is probably the thing I love most about language learning. I love finding out new ways in which Japanese (or English, Spanish, etc.) native speakers just think about things differently than I do, simply because they have a way to express it!


As always, I’m more interested in the things I can use in spoken Japanese rather than the written/formal language, and this one in particular stood out because it’s a way to express “disapproval of [someone else’s] action or idea” and that’s absolutely something I want to be able to express in at least five different ways haha
Needless to say, I marked it as “remember this”, specifically the line where it says it “can be contracted to からって in conversation”.

I took a look at the video, and there’s this point where after saying 勝ったからって次負けた… and then she stumbles over her words and corrects to 次負けるのが自分でも(…).
I feel like she’s vaguely implying or was about to say something along the lines of “since I won this time, [it’s not so bad even if I were to] lose next time” and that that isn’t the case at all. It’s not very clear, because she ends up not saying it, but it kind of feels like that’s part of what she was thinking? Like there was a voice inside her head saying one possible thing to think at that time would’ve been “次負けたら大丈夫じゃないかな” and she wants to make clear that she isn’t thinking that? Not sure but it feels like that.


(Learned a new word: conjectural. Took a few moments for the penny to drop.)
かろう is the contracted form of adj-くあろう, with あろう being the conjectural form of ある.

aDoIJG insists it can only be used with い-adjectives or negative な-adjectives, but never with verbs. (p. 107, Note 3). Other sources, including Tae Kim, however, say that it can absolutely be used with verbs, as long as they’re negative → use the auxiliary adjective ない, or in the desiderative mood (another new word) (meaning -たい forms) (たい is an auxiliary adjective, too), because as auxiliary adjectives, both of them can be conjugated like any other い-adjective.

And then once I reached the end of the entry I realised why in complete contrast to だろう, かろう felt so stiff to me – I’d overlooked the <w> on the top again…

karō can be used only in written Japanese

The other sources all agreed that it’s quite old-fashioned/outdated btw, might be the reason @fallynleaf hasn’t encountered it during their wrestling translations.