[aDoBJG] N 💮 A Dictionary of Basic Japanese Grammar


A Dictionary of Japanese Grammar :white_flower: Home Thread

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Start Date
Reading Entry Count Page Numbers Page Count
#16 Jul 8th な to なら 8 266 - 284 19
#17 Jul 15th 〜なさい to に6 8 284 - 302 19
#18 Jul 22nd に7 to の2 7 302 - 317 16
#19 Jul 29th の3 to 〜のは 〜だ 7 318 - 342 25

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On など I found this article interesting – it points out that it doesn’t always have to mean that there are other possibilities not explicitly stated, as the English glosses “and so on; and the like; for example; things like ~” imply (though that is still the most common thing).


Of course these patterns formed many hundreds or even thousands of years ago, but it was a bit depressing to see ~な and ~ないで in such sharp contrast – why is it male language to command, but female language to request? I hope the book overstates ~な note 2, at least for private communication.

I also hope this is one of those grammar “rules” that will pass into historical footnotes as it becomes completely acceptable for women to assert themselves just as men do in all situations. (Probably too much to hope for that the situation would have already improved since 1986?)

These kind of gender rules are a bit hard to internalize when we don’t even have gendered pronouns in Finnish. This is actually also why I prefer to use singular they in English, just prevents honest (but sometimes very awkward) mistakes.

(I keep suggesting English to follow suit and adopt it as the universal third person pronoun in spoken language, but native speakers look at me wildly. I seem to recall Swedish proposing hen for a similar purpose.)


It’s part of the overall pattern of “female language is politer and more indirect”. Incidentally, I have read it claimed that this kind of “women’s language” split is actually fairly recent. A book I have quotes a director of historical drama films (i.e. samurai movies) speaking in 1935, when the conventions were still not fixed of how characters in period drama should speak so as to both be comprehensible to the audience and also feel “realistically historical” to that audience:

Even if we set aside the differences based on class, the most vexing problem remains: women’s language. Women’s language is simply too new to impart that period feeling, and even in terms of elocution, it’s too close to real language as it’s spoken today.

So to this guy in 1935 this gendered language still felt new and modern and unsuitable for a movie set in the samurai era.

I keep meaning to chase up the reference for this, which is a book Vicarious Language: Gender and Linguistic Modernity in Japan.


Wow, this is all completely new to me. Thank you for sharing. Definitely had no idea it could be so recent.

This invoked a thought — maybe there is some idea in play here that using な (and ぞ etc.) is crude and vulgar and this is a way to separate from that, being more refined, clean and classy. But then you’d assume similarly feeling men would join this linguistic “movement”? For all I know, exactly that happened and that’s why it has become rare

I have a strong recollection of my Japanese teacher (an older gentleman) imprinting that you never, ever actually say 黙れ aloud under any occasion. Special emphasis for Finns who would otherwise use it casually with abandon. :innocent:


And I’m caught up! That went quicker than I thought. Just in time to prepare for the avalanche of に.

な to なら
aDoBJG Bunpro -
な な
など 等(など)
ながら ながら
ないで ないで ないで(casual request)
なければならない なければならない
なくなる ???
なくお なくお (Sequence) なくお (Reasons and Causes)
なら なら
〜なさい to に6
aDoBJG Bunpro
なさい なさい
ね ね
に¹ に
に² same as above
に³ also as above
に⁎ as above as well
に⁵ unsure if as above
に⁶ this one as above for sure
に7 to の2
aDoBJG Bunpro
に⁷ に
にちがいない に違(ちが)いない
にくい にくい
にしおは にしおは
にする noun+にする
の¹ の - (A) の (B)
の² (Adjective) + のは
の3 to 〜のは 〜だ
aDoBJG Bunpro
の³ のは・のが - Verb nominalizer
の⁎ ???
のだ んだ・んです
ので ので
のに¹ のに (despite)
のに² のに (in order to)
〜のは 〜だ ???




Week 17: 〜なさい to に6, 8 entries. Starts now!

Ni, ni, NI NI NI NI!


My highlight from previous week, I didn’t know about derogatory など:


I stumbled upon this example (it is ungrammatical, hence blurred):


From the explanation I got that we can use なら for future only when we’re 100% sure it happens, right? May be its difference in languages, IDK, but it still feels to me that I can almost be sure about the weather
 So, if you have some insights, please share.

Ok, never mind, this was already discussed: On a particular usage of なら - #19 by Vanilla


Was thinking about posting examples of からね seen in the wild, but well, I got so many hits (231), it’s so common than why bother :sweat_smile:
Was thinking about posting examples of に seen in the wild, but well, it’s so common than why bother :sweat_smile: (and I’m not even going to look at how many hits I get, don’t want to break my computer :laughing: )


Just read this week’s entries.
I don’t feel like I knew about にしおは at all, nice to learn about something completely new!


Week 18 starts now: に7 to の2 (7 entries).


Still playing catch-up :sweat_smile:. Finally got around to looking for examples for some of the N’s, though!


Yeah, this is a subject I think a lot about, too! Thank you both for the discussion!

Whenever one of these descriptions describes something as being used generally just by men, I always have to go look for it in women’s wrestling, haha. I was almost certain I’d seen this before in my Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling translations, though it’s a pain to search for. I did manage to find one great example, though!

I might have already shared this one, but this is from the TJPW show on 2023.05.27, which was Kamiyu's (Yuki Kamifuku) hometown show, where she teamed up with Shoko Nakajima against her normal tag partner Mahiro Kiryu and joshi wrestling legend Aja Kong.

No video link for this, since it’s from Kamiyu’s post-match promo in the ring. As usual, the transcript is from shupro, and the translation is mine and might contain errors.

䞊犏「退堎するアゞャにアゞャさん、埅っお。 ずりあえず、勝った 埅っお埅っお、埅っおください。いいずこなんです。今日は私の愛する地元・湘南台に尊敬しおやたないアゞャさんが来おくださっお、本圓にありがずうございたした。ただ、アゞャさんが来るず私の存圚かすれるから、しばらくくんなリングに䞊がろうずするアゞャから逃げ぀぀真匥、連れお垰っお」

Kamifuku: (to Aja, who is leaving) “Aja-san, wait. 
First of all, I won! Wait, wait, please wait! I’m going to say a good thing. I’m so, so grateful to Aja-san, whom I greatly respect, for coming out to my beloved hometown Shonandai today. But when you come, you take a bit of the focus away from me, so please don’t come for a while!” (while fleeing from Aja who is about to enter the ring) “Mahiro, take her out of here!”

This is a particularly fun example because Aja Kong is a respected veteran, and Kamiyu is being incredibly rude to her in more ways than one, haha, in a classic Kamiyu-esque way. The くんな here was a new one for me!

I tried searching for ないで, after note 2 mentioned that it’s more commonly used by female speakers, but too many examples came up that weren’t this, so I gave up looking.


I was honestly surprised by how few examples of this I found. I expected there to be a lot more, but there were only 5 uses in my January-June translation document, and most of them were used in interviewer questions. I don’t have a single use of a wrestler using it.

Kind of disappointing, because I was hoping maybe I could find an example of the derogatory など mentioned in note 1, haha. I had never heard of this before, so I had no idea the particle placement made such a difference! Very good to keep in mind.

Oh yeah, I feel like I’ve encountered this use quite a lot! The sense I get from seeing it in interview questions is that the interviewers are sort of using a noun or a few nouns as a starting point for the wrestler to answer, but the wrestler’s answer doesn’t necessarily have to be confined strictly to those topics if there’s an adjacent topic they’d rather talk about.

Here are two examples:

The first is a question Sayuri Namba asked Yuka Sakazaki and Shoko Nakajima on 2022.09.24 before their title match on 10.09:


Namba: “You two had a title match at CyberFight Fest in June this year. Is there any difference in your frame of mind compared to then?”

And here’s a question Namba asked Mizuki and Sawyer Wreck on 2023.04.29 before their title match on 5.05:


Namba: “Lastly, please talk about your strategy for the match, if you have one.”

The related expression note on なんか, though, now that is one I see all the time, haha. 72 uses in the first half of 2023 alone. It’s funny, I’d never connected it to など until now. Looking through these examples, though, I don’t really see instances of なんか that are used like など? So maybe I haven’t actually seen this particular use of なんか 


I find this one pretty straightforward. I don’t think I have any specific comments, though I do have a fun example, haha.

This is from a post-match comment I just linked in the last thread, though I'm talking about a different part of it this time. This was from a TJPW show on 2023.06.24, where Miyu Yamashita and Maki Itoh returned from their U.S. excursions:

Hard mode: here’s the video. Also, note: ベビヌフェむス (“babyface”, sometimes referred to as a “face”) is a pro wrestling term that refers to basically the good guy, a wrestler that is meant to be a sympathetic figure who garners the crowd’s love (as opposed to the “heel”, who is generally a villainous character whom the crowd tends to boo). TJPW is a bit of a weird company in that they don’t really have traditional heel/face dynamics, but, well, sometimes the audience has a clear favorite, haha.


Itoh: “I won the last preview match before Ota City. It was thanks to everyone booing me.”


Yamashita: “The booing surprised me.”

䌊藀「なんか、私たちさ、嫌われおるのかな。あっち海倖だず私たちベビヌフェむスじゃない だからさ、私今日もちょヌ歓迎されるず思っおたんだけど 」

Itoh: “I wonder if they hate us. Aren’t we babyfaces overseas? That’s why I thought there’d be a positive reception for us today, too, but


Yamashita: “They booed us while smiling.”


Itoh: “That’s scary.”


Yamashita: “They were smiling while booing, so I was relieved to see their faces.”

䌊藀「ホント 」

Itoh: “Really


Yamashita: (seeing that Itoh is feeling down) “She’s shocked. Maki Itoh is in shock.”

䌊藀「だっお䌊藀麻垌だよ みんな嬉しいず思わないの どうしお 笑顔でもブヌむングする意味が分からない。たぁでもみなさんのおかげで勝ったので、ありがずうございたした」

Itoh: “Because I’m Maki Itoh, right? And they aren’t happy? Why? I don’t know what it means for them to boo with a smile. But, well, thanks to all of you, we won, so thank you very much.”


As I mentioned above, I had trouble finding examples of this because too much other stuff was coming up that wasn’t this grammar structure. So no examples from me!

I thought the related expressions section on when and where ないで can be replaced by ずに and なくお was interesting. I hadn’t thought of it like that before, but the examples made intuitive sense to me, so I guess I must’ve internalized some of this already. I’ll probably take a closer look at those other expressions once we reach them in the book.

Okay, that’s what I have time for tonight!


Page 303 has become my new favorite page. Even if it hurts my head to think about. But at least I got through all the ににに with its help.


And now week 19, の3 to 〜のは 〜だ, 7 entries. Next week we’ll be moving on from N!


Always happy to read about のだ, because I think I’m starting to get it, but not just yet 100%.
I feel like this dictionary would be extremely useful if I was trying to express myself in Japanese, as it explains where it is better to use things in contrast to others (の VS こず, のだ VS だ, ので VS から), thanksfully at the moment my goal is just to consume native material so I don’t have to worry too much about that :grin: (though still trying to absorb the differences, to understand the nuances where it’s used)


I’ve really been enjoying and learning a lot from these parts. The explanation and the extensive verb list in the の vs こず was really useful for me.


Fell a bit further behind because it’s tournament season, which means it’s crunch time for translating TJPW :sweat_smile:. But I got caught up just before the show today, which means I have a little bit more time again!


Caught a ないで in the Wrestle Universe live chat while watching DDT Pro Wrestling Wrestle Peter Pan 2023, haha:


Context: Sanshiro Takagi, the 倧瀟長 (Mr. Haku always translated this as "Big Boss") of DDT, was doing quite a bit in his match despite coming back from a recent injury (and he'd injured his shoulder before and still struggles somewhat with it). That fan's sentiment above was basically exactly how I was feeling at this moment:

The Wrestle Universe has no identifying information attached to the comments (no names or profile pictures or anything), so you really don’t know anyone’s gender or any other details about them unless they volunteer that info in their comments.


This was probably the hardest thing in my beginner textbook for me. Lots of syllables to memorize when you’re still very new to the language! Now the main thing I struggle with is figuring out the different nuances between the different ways of expressing obligation that the related expression note talks about:

なくおはならない / いけない
ないずいけない / ならない
ならない / いけない

I went looking for some examples in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling, and found 0 examples with the full なければならない phrase. There were also none for なくおはならない, but I found 7 instances of ないずいけない!

Here's an example from the TJPW show on 2023.01.15 after Free Wi-Fi (Hikari Noa and Nao Kakuta) lost in the tag tournament:

Hard mode: here’s the video. I guess additional context is that in a previous show, they talked about wanting to win so that their faces would get used to represent the dot in the wifi signal, haha.


Hikari: “I’m disappointed at the result, but this is the first time I’ve had a partner who has lasted more than a year.” (laughs) “That whole last year, whether it’s my partner, or the belt, they’ve each become more and more important to me as time passes. I don’t want us to break up, and there’s always been a bit of fumbling.”


Kakuta: “Yes, that’s true.”

ヒカリ「でもこうやっお䞀緒にたた今幎もトヌナメントに出れお 負けちゃったんですけど、これからもっずもっずふりヌで楜しく詊合しおいけたら結果も぀いおくるのかなっお思うので。これからもよろしくお願いしたす 涙」

Hikari: “But we were able to do the tournament together again this year
 Even though we lost, I think that if we can have more and more fun wrestling as Free WiFi, the results will follow. Please keep supporting us!” (cries)

角田「ずっずこずあるごずに『蟞めないですよね』っおしょっちゅう蚀われおお。でもこうしお、これを機に䞀緒にコスチュヌムを揃えたし、今日は気合を入れお臚んだんですけど 私もトヌナメントはこずごずく山䞋さんに負けおお。シングルも幎連続だし、今日も山䞋さんに負けお。ごめんねっお思ったけど、でも負けおるいたはただただだったんだなっお、すごい前向きな気持ちでしかないし。悔しいけど、これからの未来をふりヌは考えお、どんどん成長しおいこうず思いたす。蟞めたせん」

Kakuta: “People have always said to me, ‘You’re not quitting, are you?’ But even though we got our matching gear together for this opportunity, and today we really put our fighting spirit into it
 I’ve lost all three of my tournaments to Yamashita-san. Two years in a row with the singles tournament, and I lost to her again today. I felt sorry, but even though I’m still losing, all I can do is be optimistic about it. I’m frustrated, but I’m thinking about the future of Free WiFi, and we’re going to keep growing. I won’t quit!"


Hikari: “We have to become the poster girls, so let’s do our best.”


Kakuta: “Free WiFi is going to do our best to be positively unbreakable!”


Hikari: "Let’s do it!”

I found a few instances of ならない, but not really great ones to share, haha.

By far the most common in this setting seems to be the contracted version, なきゃ. 27 uses popped up in my document for the first half of this year.

Here are a few examples from the TJPW show on 2023.03.06, which was the last preview match before Mizuki faced Yuka Sakazaki at Grand Princess:

Hard mode: here’s the video.

遠藀「私は有明前、鈎芜さんずの前哚戊 久しぶりに闘っお、楜しかったっお思っちゃったんですよ。でもやっぱり楜しかったじゃなくお、有明では勝っお、远い抜きたいず思いたした」

Endo: “Before Ariake, I had a preview match with Suzume-san. I thought it was fun to fight for the first time in a long time. But it being fun is beside the point. I want to beat her at Ariake and surpass her.”

宮本「負けおしたっおすごい悔しいし、たくさんやられおしたっお ナカさんの匷さも同䞖代の荒井さんず鈎芜さんの匷さもすごい感じたので。もっず匷くならなきゃっお思いたした」

Miyamoto: “I’m really disappointed that I lost, and I took a lot of damage
 I really felt Yuka-san’s strength, as well as that of Arai-san and Suzume-san, who are both from my generation. I have to get stronger.”

瑞垌「うヌん もかちゃんを守れなかったのが悔しいずころしか今はなくお。ナカッチがしっかりず向き合っおくれたのかは ちょっず分からないけど。有栖ちゃんずかもかちゃんの闘いを芋お、ああもっず私も頑匵らなきゃっお思えたし。もっず守れるくらいに匷くなりたいっお思ったし。远い぀け远い越せで私たちもきっずラむバルで、頑匵りたいず思ったので。いろんな気持ちはもう党郚有明にぶ぀けようず思いたす」

Mizuki: “Well
 right now, the only thing I can think about is that I regret not being able to protect Moka-chan. I don’t know if Yuka-chi was able to truly face me. But when I saw Arisu-chan and Moka-chan fighting, I felt like I had to work harder, too. I want to get strong enough to be able to protect them. We’re definitely rivals, catching up to and surpassing each other, and I want to do my best. I am going to put all of my feelings into Ariake.”


This one isn’t too tricky, though I appreciated the related expressions section detailing a bit of the nuance there. I’m starting to get more of a feel for that sort of thing gradually.

Here's a なくなる example from the TJPW show on 2023.04.15, where Maki Itoh lost her voice, haha.

Here’s the video. I don’t have a full transcript of this one, only the twitter caption, but here’s the line:


Kamifuku: “(Itoh) lost her voice in exchange for glory.”


I had some trouble with this one in the past, mostly getting it confused with なくおも and なくおもいい and other expressions, though I don’t think I’ve had issues in a while, so maybe I got that ironed out, haha.

Here's a なくお example (with a じゃなくお in there, too) from the TJPW show on 2023.04.15 after Suzume challenged Rika Tatsumi for her International Princess Championship.

Hard mode: here’s the video.

鈎芜「いたたでもあのベルトの挑戊暩を懞けお䜕床も詊合をしおきたんですけど、そのたびに届かなくお、そのたびに悔しくお。でもどこかで自分がベルトを持぀なんおありえないっお思っおる自分がいお。だけど今回は甚意されたチャンスじゃなくお自分の意志でリカさんぞの挑戊を決めたした。ありえないっお思っおた気持ちはあったけど、私、人生で䞀番ありえない プロレスラヌになるっおこずも実珟しおいるので。本気でリカさんを倒しお、ベルトを巻くっおいうありえないこずを果たしにいきたいず思いたす。王者は次の埌楜園を指定したしたそうですね。この気持ちのたたいくだけです」

Suzume: “I’ve wrestled many times for the right to challenge for that belt, but each time, I couldn’t reach it, and each time, I felt frustrated. In some respects, I was thinking that it was impossible for me to hold that belt. But this time, my title challenge was set not through a pre-arranged opportunity, but through my own will. I felt that it was impossible, but the most impossible thing in my life, becoming a pro wrestler
 I had managed to make that happen. I really want to defeat Rika-san and achieve the impossible, wrapping that belt around my waist.”

(The champion has designated the next Korakuen Hall show)

“Yes. I’m just going to go with this feeling.”

The related expressions note commented that the cause and effect relation indicated by なくお is much weaker and more indirectly presented than that of なかったから or なかったので, with なかったから being the most direct.

I went looking for some other examples, and found a funny instance of なかったから, haha. This is after the TJPW show on 2023.01.08 in Yuki Aino's hometown, which is also the hometown of her sister Nodoka Tenma, who retired from wrestling in 2022 to become a rice farmer in her hometown. Yuki Kamifuku and Rika Tatsumi were Yuki Aino and Shoko Nakajima's opponents, and their team lost.

Hard mode: here’s the video.


Tatsumi: “They got us.”


Kamifuku: “We lost lol.”


Tatsumi: “The reason we lost is because we didn’t eat Yuki’s sister’s delicious rice before the match.”


Kamifuku: “That’s right.”

蟰巳「これを食べなかったから 」

Tatsumi: “Because I didn’t eat this


Kamifuku: “Ah, I’m pissed. She beat me. Let’s go burn down her fields.”


Tatsumi: “Mm-hmm. I think the show itself was a huge success.”


Kamifuku: “Okayama is a really warm and pleasant place.”


Tatsumi: “Everyone is so kind. We’ll come back again.”


Kamifuku: “Next time, I’m burning down the rice fields.”


Tatsumi: “We’re burning them.”


Kamifuku: “I’ll bring gasoline.”

I found some examples of なかったので, too.

Here are two from the TJPW show on 2023.01.15 after Yuki Arai and Saki Akai advanced in the tag team tournament:

Hard mode: here’s the video.


(Daydream are your next opponents)

“My mental image of Daydream had them holding the tag belts. We also had the tag belts until very recently, so we can’t lose to them here either. I am well-acquainted with Tatsumi, since the olden days. Yuki-chan also knows how scary Rika and Miu are.”


Arai: “I also teamed up with Moka-san in the tournament last year, but we couldn’t advance because we lost to Daydream. This year, I want to take revenge with Akai-san.”

赀井「䞀歩䞀歩確実に階段を䞊がっおるので、そういう意味で次癜昌倢ず圓たるこずで倧きい階段を䞊がっおいきたいず思いたす。ダブル新人賞を枕で防がれたしたあのダブル新人賞、私たちオリゞナルの、私たちだからできる技なのでけっこう倧事にしおたので、あんなかわされ方があるず思わなかったので ちょっずレフェリヌのチェックをもっず厳しくしおほしいず思いたした」

Akai: “We are moving up the staircase step by step, so in that sense, I want to take a big step up by beating Daydream next.”

(They blocked the Double Rookie of the Year Award with a pillow)

“The Double Rookie of the Year Award is our original move, and it’s a move that only we can do, which means we treasure it greatly and didn’t think it could be evaded like that
 I want the referee to be a little more strict with his checks.”


Arai: “I’m mad!”


Akai: “I’m going to take out my anger on Daydream in the next match.”


I saw this and was like “oh a pretty straightforward one!” then turned the page and saw the very long section of notes, haha. I thought note 4 was really interesting, how S1 なら S2 cannot be used if it is nonsensical to suppose the truth of S1.

There are a billion uses of this in my translations, but here's one that I thought was particularly entertaining. This was from the press conference on 2023.04.18 before Pom Harajuku and Max The Impaler challenged Mizuki and Yuka Sakazaki for the tag titles. Pom signed the contract for the match, then got very worried when Max didn't show up to the contract signing, haha.

I’ve definitely posted pieces from this before, but I don’t know if I’ve shared this chunk specifically.


Sakazaki: “If Max isn’t there, Pom is so small and weak, we can relax.” (laughs) “It doesn’t look like Max’ll be there, so." (to Mizuki) “Let’s have fun sightseeing in Osaka.”


Mizuki: “Yes. First of all, though, if they don’t show up, is the match even going to happen?”


Pom: “I won’t do it if they’re not there!”


Mizuki: “But if Pom-chan says she wants to do it, it’s alright if it’s 2 on 1. As long as Max isn’t there, we have nothing to be afraid of.”


Sakazaki: “We really can relax, huh?”


Mizuki: “How nice for us!”


Sakazaki: “It’s our lucky day!”

I also looked for んなら and のなら, and funnily enough, even though this is all spoken Japanese, there wasn’t a んなら, but I did find a のなら!

This is from Shino Suzuki's debut match on 2023.03.06, where she debuted in a match with her fellow idols in the Up Up Girls:

Hard mode: here’s the video.


Miu: “Congratulations on your debut, Shino-chan!”


Hikari & Raku: “Congrats!”

志乃「泣きながら蚀葉が出ないんですけど なんか自分の人生に起こっおるこずじゃないみたいな感芚です」

Shino: (crying) “I’m at a loss for words
 It doesn’t feel like something that’s really happening in my life.”

ヒカリ「新しいメンバヌが増えお、デビュヌ戊にしおは 」

Hikari: “We’re getting more members, and as far as debuting goes


Miu: “She did her best!”


Hikari: “I’m remembering when we made our own debut.” (laughs) “I lost my own debut match, so I wanted to win in our new member’s debut."

志乃「 楜しかったです」

Shino: “It was fun!”


Miu: “Wonderful!”


Hikari: “If it was fun, then there’s no problem. You’re going to be fine.”


Pro wrestling is a setting that often favors impolite imperatives, not polite ones, haha, so I wasn’t sure how many of these I’d find, and from a quick search, it looks like there aren’t many.

I found just one example in this year's document that wasn't in a ごめんなさい or other such phrases. This was from the TJPW show on 2023.03.22, which was Miyu Yamashita's last match before her U.S. excursion.

Hard mode: here’s the video.


Yamashita: “This was my last TJPW match before I go to the U.S.”


Itoh: “You should show some reluctance to part. You’re totally unemotional.”

山䞋「ドラむじゃないよ。党然 ちょっくら行っおくるっおこずよ。そんなもんよ。すぐ戻っおくるから」

Yamashita: “No I’m not! I mean
 I’m just going to be away for a little bit. That’s all. I’ll be back soon.”


Itoh: “When are you coming back?”


Yamashita: “I’m scheduled to return on June 26 for the Fukuoka show. But I don’t know what will happen. I don’t know if I’ll still be alive.”


Itoh: “I hope you’ll be alive.”


There are approximately a billion examples of this in my translations, haha, so I don’t think I’ll hunt any specific ones down (I say that, but
). I think I already mentioned this at some point, but the intonation thing mentioned in note 2 is something I’ve been trying to work on when listening, but I’m not always great at catching it.

Note 3’s point about ね being used in non-sentence-final position to draw the hearer’s attention to something or confirm that the hearer has understood what has been said up to that point is something that I’ve absolutely seen many, many times, haha.

I did look for からね, and found a fun example after Hyper Misao and Shoko Nakajima defeated the team of Andreza Giant Panda and Haruna Neko at Grand Princess on 2023.03.18:

Hard mode: here’s the video.


Nakajima: “We’re the strongest!”


Misao: “The strongest!”


Nakajima: “We’re the strongest. In the biggest battle on earth, I think I proved that the Big Kaiju is the strongest giant creature in the world.”


Misao: “Operation Ariake, I thought for a bit there it was going to be a failure, but we won in the end, so I would say that the operation was a success.”


Nakajima: “With this, we’ve protected peace on earth!”


Misao: “And so we’ve protected the peace at Ariake Coliseum, and at TJPW’s biggest show. It’s all thanks to us!”


Nakajima: “That’s right!”


Misao: “Kyoraku Kyomei is the strongest!”


Nakajima: “We’re the strongest!”

There are loads of よね examples, but I found one post-match comments video with three separate uses of it, haha.

This is from the TJPW show on 2023.05.20 after Hikari Noa, Nao Kakuta, and Wakana Uehara lost in the one-day trios tournament.

Hard mode: here’s the video. Some additional context is that they spent the lead-up to this show telling everyone else “if we win, treat us to a meal”.


Kakuta: “What did you want to eat?”


Uehara: “Kalbi.”


Kakuta: “Yakiniku, huh? I wanted to see you stuff yourself.”


Hikari: “Got along well, huh?”


Kakuta: “I think so.”


Hikari: “The other side?”

角田「え、むこうが こっちじゃなくお いやここ3人初めおだったけど、よかった。楜しかったよね。でも負けちゃっお 」

Kakuta: “Huh, them? Not us? No, for us, even though it was our first time as a trio, it went well. It was fun, wasn’t it? Even though we lost

ヒカリ「でも今床勝ったら 」

Hikari: “But if we win next time


Kakuta: “Then it’ll be the victory celebration party, Hikari’s treat, at an all-you-can-eat yakiniku place. You want kalbi, right?”

䞊原「はい 特䞊カルビ」

Uehara: “Yes! Top of the line kalbi!”


Kakuta: “I’m looking forward to it.”


Hikari: “I’ll go at YU-M Entertainment’s expense.”

I also went looking for かね, and found a few examples.

Here's one from 2023.06.04 after both Yuki Aino and Arisu Endo came forward to challenge for Rika Tatsumi's International Princess championship at the same time, and she suggested they have a number one contender's match to determine her next challenger:

Hard mode: here’s the video (the part quoted below starts around 1:41).


(Your choice to have a number one contender’s match felt like it was made calmly)

Tatsumi: “I am a calm champion at all times.”

未詩「 そうでした」

Miu: “
Were you.”


Tatsumi: “I can make calm decisions.”

(Did you expect to suddenly have two people make an appeal?)

“Hey, I’m super popular, huh? I’d love to accept both of their title challenges, but unfortunately I just have one body. So the two of them can determine which of them will get to go first.”

(“Which one goes first,” does that mean you will accept both challenges?)

“Well, that depends on the match. We’ll see.”

Alright, I think I’m stopping there for now! I finally made it to the に’s!!


I’m not going to try to hunt down examples for all of the に’s because I don’t think sifting through them would be all that fun, haha. But here are some of my thoughts:


Note 1 is good to keep in mind here! It says that there are a number of time expressions that cannot take に (the typical examples being 今日, 明日, 来幎, 最近, etc.). Generally, if a time expression can be specified uniquely in terms of digits, the adverb can take に; otherwise it cannot. So 月曜日 and the like can take に because it’s the “first” day of the week, and クリスマス can because it’s December 25.

I don’t think I’ve fully internalized this rule, but I do seem to have somewhat of an intuitive sense for it, I think (I hope?).

There’s also that note about 間にagain that I’d already totally forgotten since reading the 間 entry
 I guess the pattern holds true here, too, where に only happens if the event in the main clause does not continue for the entire duration of the event in the 間 clause (so に is used in the case where there’s more specificity).

And apparently when a specific time expression takes 頃, に may drop! I think that one’s new for me. I suppose we sort of have that in English as well. “I got up at 5am” vs “I got up around 5am” or “I got up at around 5am”.

(Also, if you want plenty of opportunity to practice your listening comprehension for months and days, watch literally any pro wrestling show, haha.)


This one did my head in a bit when first learning it because I struggled with figuring out when to use に and when to use を in these sentences. I think note 2 sums it up pretty well, though, which is that a transitive verb used in the おあげる or おくれる construction can take に if the verb does not take a human direct object.

Intransitive verbs never being able to take に is probably good to keep in mind.


This one’s similar to に2, but somehow it was so much less confusing for me to learn intitally, haha. The related expression note here comparing it to から is interesting because I don’t think I could have explained the difference had you asked me, but the examples made intuitive sense to me which could be replaced by から and which couldn’t.


I was nodding along with this one, thinking it was all well and good, and then I got to the related expressions note 2 that said that に4 should not be confused with に6, a particle that indicates the location where someone or someone exists. I had not realized there was a distinction there

I thought the example in related expressions note 1 was really helpful, because I often have trouble figuring out if I should use に or で.


Note 1 for this one was interesting! I think I already knew this, but it had been a while since I’d been reminded, haha. It says that Vたす に, meaning “to do something”, can be used only with verbs of motion, such as 行く, 来る, åž°ã‚‹, 入る, 出る, and so on. Verbs like 歩く, 走る, 泳ぐ and such are not considered motion verbs because they express a manner of movement rather than a movement from one place to another.

The related expressions note comparing Vたす に to ために was helpful, I thought!


I struggled with this for a bit at first until I just memorized it as basically “ある and いる use に and が” and then stopped worrying about it, haha. Obviously it’s more complicated than that, but that was enough to get me through the beginner level. I don’t think I’ve had many opportunities to use ある for an event, but I’m probably going to get tripped up and forget to use で just because I had to work so hard to beat に into my head :sweat_smile:.


Whoa, short section! I’m a bit surprised that this didn’t point us back toward ぞ for comparison, since I remembered the ぞ entry mentioning that native speakers use it and に7 almost interchangeably.

The Semantic Derivations of に chart was pretty neat! These are probably my favorite part of the particle sections in this dictionary.

I did see a fun に example not in pro wrestling, but in Read Real Japanese Essays! This was in paragraph 10 of どう曞(か)いおも嫌(いや)な奎(や぀)は嫌な奎 by 町田(たちだ)康(こう):


Here’s the cheat sheet:

぀たり in other words
その文章の内容、曞き手の実際の性栌の劂䜕にかかわらず no matter what the content of the writing, and no matter what the actual personality of the writer might be
読み手は ず思い蟌んでしたう傟向にあるのである readers tend to imagine that

傲岞䞍遜な人 an overbearing and arrogant person
ぞりくだったよい人 a humble and nice person

And here’s the translator’s note in the back, which makes a really interesting point about the nuance of Machida choosing to use に here:

Machida could have ended with 傟向があるのである (“there is a tendency for”), but he uses に instead. This gives us the feeling that readers are “oriented,” as it were, “toward the tendency” of mistakenly believing that those who write withe the da/de aru style are overbearing and arrogant, and those who write with the desu/-masu style are humble and decent.

At my current level, catching the nuance of this sort of thing is still pretty much out of reach, so I really appreciate seeing examples of it pointed out to me.


Just realized: We have already passed the half-way mark for the main entries. :smile: :tada: