They all mean very different things, but it’s hard to express them easily in English. Neighborhood kind of does the trick, but that’s because neighborhood is a versatile word in English while these Japanese words aren’t quite so versatile. Looking at a Japanese dictionary can clarify (that is, a dictionary written in Japanese for Japanese people.
- near one’s own house (neighborhood)
- a nearby house
The extent to which one thing is near to another, taking an object, place, or time as a standard.
- the vicinity (of an object or place)
- roughly (a certain time)
- a nearby place
- the act of getting near something
界隈 (this one I left in the original Japanese because it’s defined in terms of the words above)
近傍 (this one I also left alone because it’s also defined in terms of the above)