I’m gonna be honest, I might be wrong in my answers to your questions (and I only answered those I felt I had some answer to give), so I hope someone more knowledgeable can confirm or deny later. (I don’t trust my grammar knowledge enough.)
I thought this was the contrasting は. I thought that because there is another は in the second part of the sentence. Somehow contrasting that it looks human, but in this world, it is only a shadow of (human) existence. But the second は maybe should be in a different spot if that is the case…
So I am now thinking it is just the emphasizing kinda use of は that I often see. It is quite often injected between verb(てform) + いる as a kind of emphasis. At least that is how I think of it, don’t know the technical term nor the exact grammar meaning.
Hopefully someone else can give a more precise answer.
I decided to do the smart thing and check the grammar dictionaries I own, because why not use them when I own them, and I found something! (And it turns out I was right about a usage, hurray!)
In A Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese Grammar (ADoIJG), it has an entry for は that it describes as follows:
a particle which emphatically affirms or negates the proposition represented by the preceding verbal and other related elements
So it is emphasizing that it looks/behaves/is (not sure how to translate the する here) in the shape of a human, but [the rest of the sentence].
か doesn’t necessarily add doubt so much as some uncertainty. And in many cases, it can be used more like a softening agent. Not making it unclear or doubtful exactly, but just making the statement/sentence less strict/severe. Or something. I don’t know how to put it.
I don’t know what the technical name of the は is here, but it acts as a kind of emphasis. I guess it is potentially just the topic marker function. (Like it is probably doing in your first question.)
The only other thing it could be (which I can’t answer right now) is that it could be contrasting, if that makes sense with the previous or following sentence. But I think it is more likely the first thing I said.
However, I’m pretty sure it isn’t usually called emphasis. But that is kinda what I call it in my head right now.
I think the は here is acting the same (as your first question), but my trusty ADoIJG doesn’t actually mention the case of たり. It mentions masu form, te-form, ku form of i-adj, and de/te-form of na-adj. And I don’t know what たり actually is. So I can’t say for sure, but I think it is emphasizing that the ringing did not stop.
It is the casual quotation marker. So more like “Oi, I told you not to push me!”
I would say this is basically the same as about. A bit of uncertainty. I do believe there is someone on the forum (I can’t remember who right now), who likes to call か the uncertainty marker rather than the questioning marker, because it often adds uncertainty either a little or to the degree of making it a question. (And I guess the translation doubt would fall somewhere in the middle of that spectrum.) I think for this use it is very much on the lighter side, meaning to tends to be more of a softener of the sentence rather than adding true uncertainty/doubt.