Hi, dropping by again to contribute/comment/edit. I’ll provide collapsed (‘hide details’) sections and tag each person I address so you can each find your section faster, and only the sections that interest you.
I think it's just 'a thousand yen', as in '...the hospital has made a thousand yen...'.
In the comic, the one speaking isn’t Saitou, but rather his friend (IDK his name because I’m not really following the story), and the text in E is a continuation of what he said in D. In D, he says that one IV drip costs more than ¥1000, so it’s logical to conclude that he’s discussing how much the hospital makes from one IV drip in E. もうかってる, being the present progressive form, has two possible meanings: 1. is making money 2. has made money. The reason being that both are present states.
Also, I believe that 確かに here means ‘indeed’ rather than ‘certainly’, the reason being that Saitou’s friend ends his previous remark with けど, which means ‘but’ or ‘even though’ (depends on how the sentence is translated, but it essentially indicates a contrast between two clauses/ideas). Taken together, the two speech bubbles next two the line separating the panels read (I’m trying to translate without changing the word order too much, so forgive me for using slightly less common translations of words like だから):
The patient has a one-tenth share to pay, so he just pays 100 yen, but…the hospital has indeed earned 1000 yen…
‘Thousands of yen’ would probably be written as 数千円 (several/a few thousand yen) or 何千円も (many thousand yen).
Also, Zizka’s site for Ruby conversion works! Just remove the %5D that somehow got tagged onto the end of the link.
Here, unless I'm quite mistaken, こと should be written in hiragana (according to formal grammar rules), because it's a nominaliser, so it's performing a grammatical function and has lost its original meaning.
The rule is that a word which also serves a grammatical function, like あげる、もらう、できる、こと、もの and the like, should only be written with kanji when they are used in their ‘original’ sense (e.g. ‘to receive (a literal concrete or abstract thing)’ for もらう, as in プレゼントを貰う). The Japanese Agency for Cultural Affairs (the 文化庁, part of the MEXT) has an PDF on those rules somewhere, the relevant parts of which I pushed through maybe a year ago, when I less comfortable with Japanese and trying to learn the ‘correct’ forms. You should be able to find it if you google 「こと 事 違い and look out for a bunka.go.jp address. However, the rules aren’t always easy to apply. (For instance, is it そんな事 or そんなこと? Depends on what そんな represents and whether こと really means ‘matter’ or ‘affair’. I’d stick with the second, but you can argue it’s the first.) They also frankly aren’t followed very often: even the Imperial Hamarikyu Gardens use 〜て下さい instead of てください on their garden entry permission chips, and in novels, kanji are preferred for almost everything, with furigana by the side for rarer kanji. (I’m talking about light novels, whose text is usually written vertically. I don’t know if there are scholarly books that contain no furigana even for the rarest kanji.) I believe the point is to save space.
The block you should be looking at is in fact 無理して がんばる事, which is ‘the act of 無理してがんばる’. That’s how you can parse こと in such verb-noun structures. 無理してがんばる is literally ‘to try hard doing the impossible’, which you might also translate as ‘to make an effort to force oneself’, or simply ‘to try to do the impossible’. I’ve seen (or rather, heard) 無理する translated as ‘to force oneself’, but it can also mean ‘to overwork/strain oneself’ and so on.
By the way, ねーよ=ないよ, in case that was causing confusion.
The break-down you provided it correct. し indicates a justification. What needs to be explained is まま, which generally means 'state/manner/way' (these probably aren't translations you'll get in an EN-JP dictionary, because it's not treated as a noun even though I think it acts like one). The thing is that these 'states' or 'ways' are usually pre-defined in some sense, and まま rarely appears alone.
I needed to spend a really long time (at least an hour) searching for information because I couldn’t understand for the life of me why the most common kanji for まま is 儘. I know the simplified version in Chinese, but it made no sense, because it modern Chinese, 尽 (the simplified form of 儘) usually means ‘to the fullest extent’. It’s not even a noun or used like まま in Japanese. Worse, there are two other kanji for まま – 随 (follow) and 任 (according to/assign to) – that seem vaguely related to each other, but which have no link to 儘 in modern Chinese whatsoever! Anyway, what I found in the end was that in Classical Chinese (which is closer to the Chinese that Japan took kanji from), 儘 had a similar meaning to 随 and 任, and they all roughly relate to the idea of ‘following something/someone’s will’ or ‘leaving someone to do as they please’. (See the link?) That’s why it’s used in expressions like 思いのままに (lit. in the manner of one’s thoughts aka as one pleases) or 仰せのままに (as ordered (by a superior)).
Another possibility is for it to refer to a current state, like in 見るまま (the manner that one sees). A more elaborate example would be the possible words of a father rushing over to a hospital after work to see his injured daughter, only to meet a nurse leaving the ward after helping his daughter to turn in for an afternoon nap. (We have a tendency to need extra rest in the hospital, after all.) As the nurse turns around to wake his daughter, since she has just fallen asleep, the father tells the nurse, 「寝たままにしておいてください。私は待てますから。」i.e. ‘Let her sleep for now, please. (Because) I can wait.’ He then goes into the ward and quietly takes a seat beside the bed. In both of these examples, a certain status quo is maintained or referred to.
As such, you could think of Saitou’s friend as saying, ‘Anyhow, (we’ll) still get a 38000-yen salary [justification]’, because 給料3万8千円のまま is the pre-existing state of having a salary of 38000 yen. (They’ll be paid whether they fight the problem of excessive medical expenses or not.) A more literal translation would be ‘Anyhow, it’ll be the 38000-yen salary status quo’, but ‘status quo’ isn’t the only possible meaning of まま, as I showed in my detailed explanation in the previous paragraph.
I’ll leave you all to add on whatever you want for F and I. I’ve been staring at questions related to this page for about 4h on and off. I’m gonna take a break and/or take a look at the May 2nd page.