I am in for one month or have been in for one month?

私は一ヶ月日本にいます。

“I am in Japan for one month” or “I have been in Japan for one month?”

Or something else?

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Your sentence is more “I am in Japan for one month”.

I would use:

“I am (and will be) in Japan for one month.”
私は一ヶ月間日本にいます。I think the 間 is optional.

“I am (and have been) in Japan for one month; I am (and have been) in Japan since a month ago.”
私は一ヶ月前から日本にいます。

I’m not completely sure, though, so I hope someone else confirms or denies. :sweat_smile:

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Was going to say you have to write “…日本にいた” but then I got unsure…

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You cannot use the past tense if you are still in Japan.

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the second sentence is an example of the present perfect in english. Most constructions that we express with the perfect in english are in japanese are expressed with ている.

Example:
私は十年ここに住んでいます。

I have lived here for ten years.

There are some additional quirks here though. The “perfect of recent experience” (“I have just arrived”) is expressed with verb + ところ. And the “perfect of result” (“I have parked the car on the street” [and it is still there]) can be expressed with てある (as well as ている).

This all comes from the fact that japanese doesn’t really “have” a perfect tense the way we do in english. So there is not a clean equvilalence between constructions.

Also note that your second sentence is ambiguous in english as well.
Between:
I came to japan one month ago and am still here.
and
At one time in the past I spent one month in Japan. (without stating that you are still there)

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