How do you remember long o usage?

I’m struggling trying to remember when to use a う vs a お with certain words? Anyone else had this problem and how did you get by?

Example

Ice - こおり.

Number -ごう.

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It’s nearly always おう rather than おお so you can probably just focus on learning the exceptions.

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generally speaking, おお occurs in native Japanese words while おう is found in Chinese-derived words. kun’yomi vs. on’yomi, in other words. but as araigoshi said, おお is a lot less common so your best bet is just to memorize the exceptions, because there aren’t that many

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Eventually it just starts to kind of click that they are spelled with a longer sound or a different sound. Going through Korean I find spelling really hard right now but I had that problem in Japanese. It just happens with more practice.

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There are something like 15 common words with おお in there, all the rest is おう.
You can see the list in the official announcement of modern kana orthography here:
https://www.bunka.go.jp/kokugo_nihongo/sisaku/joho/joho/kijun/naikaku/gendaikana/honbun_dai2.html
(sectiion 6, 次のような語は,オ列の仮名に「お」を添えて書く。)

We can also see おお in compound words that use the words in the list above, especially 大きい can turn into a prefix 大 written おお in kana, like in 大雨、大雪 etc.

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