Hello how do I tell if a dash is supposed to represent the kanji for “one” or used as a prolonged sound for the preceding kana? Is it just an experience thing?
Context. Generally, you’ll find kanji with kanji, and katakana with katakana.
So, 一体, 十一円, 一石二鳥 are all the kanji for “one”
コンピューター, オーストラリア, ジョージ are all the katakana long vowel mark.
Also, if the writing is vertical, ー is rotated, and 一 is not, like in this random example from a magazine:
一方 uses the kanji 一, and kanji aren’t rotated in vertical text,
パートナー uses the katakana notation for a long sound, which is rotated in vertical text.
(but the context tip-off still applies too, of course)
Adding to the above, the kana is also shorter, which is relatively easy to tell from the kerning.
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