Knowing your vocabulary first is the only way.
Lets think of it this way. When Japanese people are born, from birth they are learning the language, how to listen and how to speak. They pick it up. By the time they reach school and actually start to learn how to read and write Kanji their vocabulary is quite large. This is the advantage that they have.
The same applies to us. Learinng Kanji first off is not a good idea unless you are complementing it with other lessons to enforce that learning.
The only way to differentiate is to know what the word is. You have an example above and all of those are relatively easy vocabulary words. Seeing the Kanji and knowing what the Kanji means and knowing your vocabulary will instantly trigger in your brain what the reading is meant to be.