Are the particle で and the て-form of the copula the same or different?

Chicken and egg question. So the て-form of だ/です is で. But the で in だ/です comes from the particle で. So are these でs considered identical?

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They’re completely unrelated as far as I can tell.
The で particle indicates the context or means through which something takes place. だ is the “is” in an “A is B” type sentence.

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で in its linking form as the te-form of nouns to give reasons is derived from the copula as far as I can tell not from the particle.

Whoops sorry I misread your post!

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Ok, follow up: Is the で in である the particle で (or related to it) or is it its own thing?

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である is a copular verb, so no it’s not derived from that particle で.

I think the で in である is the “て-form” for だ (as you put it). More accurately, で is the 連用形 form of だ, and then you attach ある to it. I think that’s what’s happening from a etymological perspective. Honestly, て-form is one of the few things I’m having trouble finding sources on from a native grammar perspective.

EDIT: Well never mind.

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Wiktionary also more specifically says its etymology is from a contraction of にてあり

https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/である

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Now that’s just weird.

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Yeah also from Weblio:

https://www.weblio.jp/content/である

Made sure to correct my original post to にてあり as I typo’d when typing on my phone. :sweat_smile:

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You beat me to it!

If you look up the particle で it says it’s “originally a contraction of にて, later treated as a conjugation of the copula だ.”

https://en.m.wiktionary.org/wiki/で#Etymology_2

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Well then I stand corrected. Interesting info I should have looked up. :bowing_man:

Always love learning new things like this. There’s always so many new interesting nuggets to learn about Japanese.

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