Short Grammar Questions

Like @Jonapedia already pointed out, this is the exact equivalent of ないで
Here is a Maggie Sensei article 〜ずに ( = zuni) & 〜ないで ( = naide) – Maggie Sensei

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What’s the difference between なくてもいい & {ずに/なくて(も)/ないで}済む when the latter means to not have to do something? For example, can なくてもいい replace ずに済んだ in the following sentence?

知人の紹介で入社できたので、テストは受けずに済んだ。(Example taking from Bunpro)

Also I don’t know exactly why, but replacing せずに済んだ with なくてもいい sounds weird in the following sentence doesn’t it?

君が予定を合わせてくれたら、みんなのスケジュールを変更せずに済むんだけど… (Example taking from Bunpro)

You need to take the past tense into account, so in that case it would become the following, which is totally acceptable:

知人の紹介で入社できたので、テストは受けなくてもよかった。
(or both in the present, of course)

They have different nuances, but I think the first thing you should keep in mind is that 済む is stating a fact. When you say 〇〇ずに済んだ, you are stating that it didn’t happen. Period.
なくてもいい, on the other hand, is stating a situation of no obligation, regardless of what really happened.

What I mean by that is that you can say stuff such as:

本当はテストを受けなくてもよかったのに、彼はどうしても受けたいと言って、受けさせてもらった。

わざわざテストを受けたのに、知人の紹介があったから実は受けなくてもよかった。

But it’s impossible to say the above with 済んだ, because if he didn’t take the test, he didn’t take the test. You can’t say “he didn’t, but he did”.

Also, since 済む has a meaning of finishing things, when you say it as 〇〇{ずに/なくて(も)/ないで}済む it gets this nuance of “things got done without of all the hassle of 〇〇”. It’s generally implied that you are glad you didn’t have to bother doing whatever was initially thought to be necessary.
Since なくてもいい is also used for permissions, it can be used regardless of the intentions of the original actor, without the above nuance.

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Thank you!

Is there a significant difference between using 〜たらいい or 〜といい when saying you are hoping for something or that something would be good to do?
I am reviewing them on bunpro and it gives the definitions:
it would be nice if, it would be good if, should・I hope…

but no distinction between the two is given.

Not in the present tense. In the past tense though, for something that didn’t actually happen (i.e. ‘it would have been good if ~, but it didn’t happen’), you have to use 〜たらよかった. 〜とよかった… seems to exist, but almost all the translations I’ve seen online for it from native speakers suggest that it’s still interpreted as the present tense. Perhaps よかった is some sort of ‘tone softening’ using the past tense. I mean, I’m not 100% sure as far as this structure is concerned, but I’m pretty sure that in general, 〜と+[past tense verb] cannot be used to express that something would have happened in the past if ~ had happened (if ~ didn’t actually happen).

Here’s an answer on HiNative that lines up with what I just said:

That aside, more generally, 〜と expresses a more obvious, natural cause-effect relationship than 〜たら does, so there is that slight nuance – the link between ~ and the result doesn’t need to be as self-evident with 〜たら. Another answer I saw on HiNative also suggests that 〜と is a conditional structure that’s appropriate if ~ is likely to happen.

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I have a quick question about V場合は,~ that I hope someone can answer

In these two examples, why is the past tense used ?
雨が降った場合はハイキングは中止です。
時間に遅れた場合は会場に入れません。

What’s the difference with this sentence where past tense is not used ?
先生がいらっしゃる場合は私がお供致します。

And how can I know if I should use the past tense or not with 場合 ? Since it’s a hypothetical situation, it has not happened yet so I’m a bit confused.

(These are exemple sentences from A Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese and みんなの日本語 II)

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Firstly, it’s important to remember that た is not necessarily “past tense” but rather “perfect aspect” meaning that a verb has completed.

The first two are conditionally based on it having already rained and already being late for the conditions to be met. Using the non-た form would be akin to saying “In the event that rain will fall (in the future)” or “in the case that you will be late (in the future)”. Those aren’t very easy to determine as being true or false.

With verbs of existence like いる or いらっしゃる, you don’t need the perfect aspect to imply “completion” of anything.

If the verb in its non-た form implies a state that you are desiring as a condition, it doesn’t need to be in た form. If the condition requires an action to complete or a state to have changed, then た would be necessary.

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Thanks for your anwser, I think I understand it better now :slight_smile:

This article was very helpful. Thank you so much! :star_struck:

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Would this be a correct way to say that you received the Corona vaccine or what would be a better way?

コロナワクチンの注射をしました.

I’m only just starting out on my grammar and output journey so I may be totally confused here :slight_smile: .

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Close, but the problem with 注射をする is that it means that you’re the one who performed the injection. コロナワクチン(注射)を受けました is what you’re looking for: you ‘took’ (literally ’accepted’) the vaccine.

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Thanks for the help, much appreciated.

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I wonder whether one could get away with using a passive tense here as well and saying something like:
私は(看護師に)注射されました。
But that’s probably pushing it a bit and I agree 受ける makes more sense.

I think I would go with ワクチンを打ちました. For some expressions it’s valid to use active voice, even if you aren’t the one performing them, and this is one of them. Another example is saying 髪を切った when you got your hair cut (by a hairdresser).

The expression ワクチンを接種しました also seems to be used, as well as ワクチンを受けました which @Jonapedia suggested.

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I actually talked about this recently with my Japanese language partner, and she said the same. When I asked her for the reason why active voice is being used, she said that it’s obvious that I‘m not vaccinating myself, therefore it is being understood as „I was vaccinated“. :exploding_head:

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I think this works too, but I think it sounds a little too passive. Maybe してもらいました is better, because when you tell someone you’re vaccinated, I think the fact that it was your decision is important to mention (as opposed to making it sound like the nurse could have injected you while you were distracted).

Personally, I find this strange, but if it’s common usage, so be it. In Singapore, I informally say, ‘I cut my hair’, but I always say, ‘I got my hair cut’ when I’m paying attention to my words. Maybe something similar is at work here.

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Ah, indeed! Or してくれました。Yes, I think that implying a “favor” also sounds reasonable :slight_smile: . At least to me it does make sense.

I suppose, yes. I picked もらいました because it more strongly implies that I asked for it, whereas with くれました, the focus is on the fact that the other person did something for me. The subject of もらう is me, whereas the subject of くれる is the other person.

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So much this! First I tried to use passive voice for it but she immediately corrected me and said that’s not how it is being expressed. :woman_shrugging:
Of course this is just one single data point but she is a middle-age well-educated person so I usually tend to believe her (unless proven otherwise :upside_down_face:)

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