Short Grammar Questions


#2022

Ah, I see! This actually makes sense! :smiley:

So this is correct and their style of teaching just looks a tiny bit different from what I am used to – I can live with that!

Thanks for your quick reply! :relaxed:


#2023

「全員男せいです。」
“They are all males.”

What is せい doing here?


#2024

It’s the word 男性 with the 性 being written in hiragana.


#2025

Ahhh, okay, thanks.


#2026

Hmm, the に still confuses me
What about 主に
means mainly but is it really the main location :thinking:
I might be looking too much into this hmm


#2027

Since 主 isn’t a verb stem, it doesn’t have anything to do with the construction, just a separate expression.
And don’t let yourself get too confused by the に, it’s just a set expression. So whenever you see ‚verb stem’ + に行きます it just means „to go to do ‚verb‘“


#2028

I found this short description which also points to Genki I so @Frosty-chan can further read on the topic if interested:

https://wp.stolaf.edu/japanese/grammar-index/genki-i-ii-grammar-index/ni-iku-genki-i-chapter-7/


#2029

に doesn’t always refer to a location. に has many different uses depending on context. This webpage seems to have good information on the different uses:


#2030

What’s the difference between 聞いてあげましょう and 聞きましょう? “Let’s listen for them” and “Let’s listen”?


#2031

~てあげる, ~てもらう, ~てくれる, and their variants convey the giving/receiving of favors.

So roughly, the difference however negligible:
聞いてあげましょう - “Let’s hear them out” (give the favor of listening)
聞きましょう - “Let’s listen” (doesn’t really express any additional, emotion/intention)

Hopefully that makes since. One thing to note is that てあげる, despite being polite, can come off as a little snooty depending on how it’s used.


#2032

みたい doesn’t have past tense or negative form? How would you say in Japanese something like “X looked like Y (before / a year ago)”? Fiddling with Google Translate gave me: “X はかつて Y のように見えた。” for “X looked like Y before.”


#2033

The suffix みたい is a な adjective. So you can put だった or でした at the end for past tense.


#2034

So that’s how it works. Thanks.


#2035

Another one from BunPro…

8時までに学校につかないといけない。

I don’t get what the と is doing here?


#2036

ないといけない is just another way of saying “have to do X”, like なければいけない and なくてはいけない.
The と is the conditional, in this sentence meaning:
If I don’t arrive by 8 (と = certain consequence) いけない (roughly something like no good, hopeless).
And this “If I don’t, then something not good happens” basically just means “I have to…”.

But it looks like bunpro doesn’t have a grammar point that explains ないといけない, so I don’t know why they have an example sentence like that… maybe you should post in the BunPro thread, to make them aware.


#2037

Yeah, I actually think I remembered that grammar point from one of Misa’s videos. Isn’t that this? It just looks like it’s in a sentence before it is taught (if you go by their order, at least).


#2038

Yup, that conditional. I’m just wondering because for all the other conditionals + いけない they have extra grammar points, so it’s a bit weird to have this one just pop up without even a way to check the meaning via bunpro.


#2039

ペットがいますか? Do you have pets?
ペットはいますか? Are there pets?
彼らはペットですか? Are they pets?

How does the particle in the first two change the meaning of the sentence?
Why does the verb form change in the third sentence?

Thanks.


#2040

The difference between は and が is a short question to ask, but kind of a long one to answer. There are a couple different reasons why you could put one or the other in those sentences. I would recommend reading a guide like Tae Kim or imabi on the general differences.

いる is a verb that means that something exists and is animate.
です is the copula in Japanese. You can think of a copula functioning like an equal sign. “They = pets?”

We happen to use “to be” for both existence and the copula in English, but they are separate in Japanese.


#2041

“Is/are there” is different than “is/are”

Here they are with the verbs swapped:

ペットですか?
Is/are (you/it/they) a pet (or pets)?

彼らはペットがいますか?
Do they have a pet (or pets)?