Short Grammar Questions

Also, for an example of a ら-line character that’s not る, つまらない > つまんない is one I’ve frequently come across.


What is the difference between 飼う and 育てる? Can 育てる be used for both children and animals while 飼う is only for animals? Could you use either for plants as well? Any other uses not mentioned?

育てる can be used on virtually anything you can raise or care for… from humans, animals, plants, to abstract things like culture.

飼う is exclusively for animals.


Thank you!

I’m wondering exactly why を is used here:

まだ経費の精算をしてないのには、何か理由があるんですか? (WK理由EX#2)

My question: since 清算 is a suru verb, could を be omitted? How would that affect the meaning here, if at all?

My rough guess: omitting を changes the clauses like so:




but I’m not sure if that changes the meaning much.

I’m sensing how much work is ahead for me learning how tightly particles bind to phrases relative to each other and such…almost a particle `order of operations,’ if you will.

Thanks in advance!

Note: WK example modified closer to standard kana・kanji usage

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You couldn’t omit this を and still have a proper grammatical sentence, though people do omit particles in spoken language. If you did leave it out, nothing would be marked as a direct object of the verb.

I answered a question like this in a recent thread.


Hmm alright. If I understand correctly, then:


would be ok here as well?

My understanding is that change would emphasize 精算 a bit since it’s now inside the predicate* and catching plaintive vibes from のに.

*of that first dependent clause, not of the whole sentence.

edit: 精算 is emphasized, not 経費


It’s pretty much the difference between ‘You haven’t done the exact calculations of your expenses, yet.’ and ‘You haven’t yet calculated your expenses exactly.’ The second one soinds a lot clunkier in English. That is not to say the same clunkiness is there in the Japanese. I think it is mostly about the emphasis, as you say. ‘You haven’t done the thing yet! Why?’

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I have a little question with this sentence:

Is this the sentence-ending ぞ, making it an inverted sentence? It doesn’t look like it…

It’s not an inverted sentence. It’s more like it’s something some imagined person is saying. You could slip a という状態 or something between ぞ and となれば and that might have made it a little more familiar of a structure to learners.


Oh, I understand now. Thanks!

Is あげる and くれる only used when you give or receive a favour? Or can it be used for any action?

Like for example,

  1. 母が僕を叱った。
  2. 母が僕を叱ってくれた。

あげる and くれる can be used for anything that someone does for you or that you do for someone. I’m actually not sure how the example sentence is a counter example of a favour?

If I read this correctly, I guess this would say that your mother scolds you as a service to you. (Maybe you want to be confronted with your mistakes? :man_shrugging:)

To be more accurate, she does it as a service to someone unknown (though as Leebo said, the default is assumed to be you), since the recipient of the favour is not defined here. If she does it for you for example, you could technically say:


You could also say this if she does it for your dad for example:



If I’m not mistaken, the くれる is always from the speakers point of view, so you don’t have to specify it.


Not necessarily, though I think it is the default assumption.


Not specifying doesn’t make it someone unknown. You’d only ever assume a 3rd party if it was specified.


If this also had もらう as well I’d love it. But as it is I only like it. :stuck_out_tongue_closed_eyes:


もらう is in its own realm though, much simpler than あげる and くれる


My favourite explanation is this one:

Unfortunately, there is only one nice graphic but lots of cool examples (especially the very last one :joy_cat:)


That looks super helpful and also gives me social anxiety.

That awkward moment when your friend is your uchi but you’re their soto.