Participles?

So how do participles work in Japanese? Are there participle equivalents? If not, how do you convey things like:

written words
a working refrigerator
the crying baby
a wrecked car
a burning log
etc.?

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This sounds a bit like poetry

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Noun-modifying phrases, basically. If a clause ending with a verb immediately precedes a noun, it modifies that noun.

泣いている赤ちゃん = a crying baby

More info:
http://maggiesensei.com/2017/02/04/how-to-modify-a-noun-in-japanese/

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If I had to, I would express those with verbs used attributively.

書かれた言葉
動いている冷蔵庫
泣いている赤ちゃん
壊れた車
燃えている丸太

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Like a vignette of a confusing day.

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Exactly! Also I keep reading it as “a burning dog”

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I had to scroll up and re-read it because until your comment, I hadn’t realized it wasn’t “a burning dog”…

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You’ve got some pretty good answers, so I just want to note that they work just like they do in English.

Don’t get too hung up on the verb forms if they look complex.

書かれた - written
言葉 - word
書かれた言葉 - written word

Also, Japanese uses other ways to indicate plurality, so the above can mean “written words” as well. You’d either need to add further modifying parts or it would be clear from context.

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