Order of stuff with multiple の particles

Can someone explain this sentence to me: 青いコートのよこにあるみどりのです

Does that mean it is the blue coat next to the green one, or the green one next to the blue coat? and why?

It’s the green coat which is next to the blue coat.

Basically, 青いコートのよこにある is a verb phrase that’s describing みどりの.

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Why wouldnt you use something like “tonari” or aida"?

And furthermore, why end it in a posessive particle?

Because it uses よこ?

It’s not a posessive, but rather the “dependent indefinite pronoun” version of の - i.e. the “one” in “the green one”.

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Yeah の is not simply a particle to mark possession:

http://www.imabi.net/theparticlenoii.htm

That covers some of the additional uses of の including its functions as a nominalizer and as the indefinite pronoun that belthazar mentioned.

For the same reason someone would say:

He stood beside me.

vs

He stood to my side.

vs

He stood next to me.

It’s just all down to the subjective nature of how someone chooses to word something when you can use a multitude of similar meaning words and phrases.

Also when talking about position doesn’t 間 mean something more like ‘between’? Like being located in a space between multiple objects? Doesn’t seem to be an appropriate word for the situation. Whereas 横 means beside/next to.

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Well you wouldn’t use “Aida” because that means between two or more items.
This sentence is just saying “next to”, no between

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