Regarding this, a common source of “weird” kanji combos is when the meaning used in the word is just different from the main one we learn as beginners. One of the meanings of 前 is “allotment” or “portion.” This can be seen in the word 一人前 (いちにんまえ one serving of food).
Taken in that context, portions of food with 出 don’t seem that strange for 出前.
But yeah, if you haven’t been exposed to whatever meaning in question, it seems weird.
Other times, the kanji actually have no relation to the meaning, as in ateji, such as 寿司, In that case, if you don’t know the reading, it would be impossible to guess the meaning.
That is a tricky one. I’m 8 for 10 on that one with a streak of four (full disclosure). But if you can conceptualize natural as “instinctive” that might help. We can think of instinct as the knowledge of something that is built into our DNA. So that knowledge – something we knew before (前) we learn it – means getting it right (当たり） comes naturally to us, it’s obvious, etc.
i just accepted that it’s a homonym of 記事 (article, for example in a newspaper), and that it’s almost exclusively used for cloth, so i made up a story about cloth is a living material made of earth (like cotton), and there’s an article about it in the newspaper.
kind of a strange mnemonic, but it only has to last for a little while.
当たり前 comes easy for me, it’s such a commonly used word, i just put ‘of course’ as synonym, since that’s what comes to mind first.
美味しい is ‘beautiful taste’, the reading comes from exposure, similar to 当たり前, so it’s a simple connect the dots thing for me. i remember most kanji readings this way: