Let’s read NHK Regular Articles

It means threat of heavy rain. 〜おそれ(があります) implies a probability of something with a negative outcome (悪い結果の可能性があります)

This means from East to West Japan. 〜 is used as a substitute for から〜まで.

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More like “risk of heavy rain”.

Can be either, but in this context it’s from west to east (according to the original article the next sentence contains “西日本から東日本の広い範囲”, your copy has a slightly different version though)

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I’m not sure I understand. Isn’t my the article I linked the original article?

Regarding おそれ, my dictionary had only the following definitions:

ⓐ fear, horror, anxiety, concern, uneasiness, reverence

So I guess I should check more than one reference when it comes to the meaning of words.

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Pretty sure it’s this grammar point:
https://jlptsensei.com/learn-japanese-grammar/恐れがある-osore-ga-aru-meaning/

But since it’s a title がある got dropped.

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I guess the text was updated? I just went there to check the video that comes with the article, and randomly noticed the difference.

Well, this is from the set expression おそれがある. Obviously there is a link to the word おそれ, but yeah, you have to know it. Newspapers love to drop things to save space.

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① 前線と低気圧の影響で、これから1日にかけて西日本と東日本の広い範囲で雷を伴った激しい雨が降り、局地的には非常に激しい雨が降って大雨となるおそれがあります。

:speech_balloon: “The weather front and the influence of the low atmospheric pressure…”

前線: n. weather front;
低気圧: n. low atmospheric pressure;
影響: influence, effect, to influence;
これから: after this;
かけて:

ⓗ to cause (somebody inconvenience, trouble, etc.), to burden (someone), to impose (see also: 迷惑を掛ける)

🙋🏽 Why use これから here? Shouldn’t it be something like ために? As in “because of the weather front” and the “low atmospheric pressure”?

I have the feeling that the rain is a result from a combination of these two things. これから gives the impression that “after the weather front and the low atmospheric pressure” which doesn’t seem to fit as well.

The"because" part is already contained with the te-form of です。 前線と低気圧の影響 = Because of the weather front and low pressure.

これから = from now on
By the way にかけて is also a grammar point that appear often in news.

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にかけて is this grammar point: https://japanesetest4you.com/flashcard/learn-jlpt-n3-grammar-にかけて-ni-kakete/
meaning “over (a period of time)”
1日にかけて: over the period of one day

I think the これから refers to the point in time where the article was published.

“Because of the influence of low atmospheric pressure, from here on (from this point in time) over the period of one day…”

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I think I understand the general idea that violent storms with lightning are happening in Japan because of atmospheric pressure and the like.

🙋🏽 Re: 局地的には, I’m not too sure about the purpose of that second sentence. If the storm is affecting all of Japan, why specify that locally there is violent rain falling down considering that the same is happening all over the country?

I would interpret the 局地的に as limiting the areas in which 大雨 is happening. So you have 激しい雨 with 雷 everywhere, and 局地的に you have 非常に激しい雨 and also 大雨のおそれ.
There is definitions for 激しい雨 and 非常に激しい雨:
激しい雨: 30-50mm/h
非常に激しい雨: 50-80mm/h

大雨 is defined as “災害が発生するおそれのある雨“

To summarize, there is 激しい雨 all over the country, and 非常に激しい雨 locally with the risk of 大雨 (which means there might be damages from the rain)

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② 気象庁は、土砂災害や低い土地の浸水、川の増水などに警戒するよう呼びかけています。


:speech_balloon: “The Meteorological Agency, with landslides and the like for inundated low lands, are calling out to vigilance regarding the rising water of the rivers (and the like)”

気象庁: Meteorological agency of Japan: →『は』 topic;
土砂災害: landslide disaster: → 『や』non-exhaustive list;
低い・土地: low (い~adj.) + place → 『の』connective particle;
浸水: inundation;
川の増水: rising water of the rivers;
警戒: vigilance;
よう: look as if;
呼びかける: to call out;

🙋🏽 Regarding など: etc… and 『や』, could we say that they serve a similar function? For instance, 土砂災害や could be interpreted as “landslide etc…”? Does the 『や』in a non-exhaustive list serve more or less the same purpose as など?

Why use など here? Why not simply say “the rising water”? Why “the rising water of rivers” etc… If the “etc” refers to the rising water of all bodies of water, then why pinpoint rivers in particular?

③ 気象庁によりますと、前線が九州を通って日本の南へ延び、前線上の低気圧が1日にかけて日本海へ進む見込みです。


九州: Kyushu (southernmost island);
前線: weather front;

I would say it is pretty common to end a non-exhaustive list with など, so yes, they serve a similar function.

The など applies to the whole list.
The agency is cautioning against landslides, rising water levels and possibly other things.
If you wanted to pinpoint the rivers, you would say 川などの増水

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気象庁によりますと…

So the 『と』is likely to introduce a quote from the meteorological agency.

I’m used to 「より」being used in comparisons but here considering that it’s よります『と』I would imagine it’s the ~ます form of verb.

According to my dictionary, よります could be all sorts of verbs:

Of those 6 verbs, three are common. Out of those common three, only one is identified as written in kana alone:

よる 【因る, 拠る, 依る, 由る】
Godan verb with `ru’ ending, intransitive verb, word usually written using kana alone
ⓐ to be due to, to be caused by (esp. 依る;拠る)

So I would guess that’s the right interpretation. Am I right?

It is the right verb but the wrong meaning; it’s definition 3: “to be based on; to come from​”
Are you aware of the structure 〜によると (according to 〜)? It is the same thing, just in the more polite ます-form.

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I haven’t participated in this before, but here we go. It looked like ④ hadn’t been claimed yet. I attempted a translation that would sound as natural as possible in the context of a weather forecast in English, which is why I replaced the dates with days of the week.

④ 前線や低気圧に向かって暖かく湿った空気が流れ込み、西日本と東日本の広い範囲で大気の状態が不安定になり、九州ではこれから30日にかけて、このほかの西日本では30日、東日本では30日から1日にかけて雷を伴って激しい雨が降る見込みです。

As warm, moist air flows towards the weather front and low pressure zone, the atmospheric condition will become unstable over large parts of western and eastern Japan. Kyushu may see heavy rain accompanied by lightning from now into Tuesday, followed by the rest of western Japan on Tuesday itself and eastern Japan from Tuesday into Wednesday.

These are the words I looked up apart from what had already been provided in the thread:

湿る to become damp, moist
流れ込む to flow into
範囲 range, extent
不安定 unstable
雷 lightning
伴う to be accompanied by
見込み possibility

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At ok, so according to the Meteorological Agency then:

通って: to go by, to go along;
延び: growth;
日本の南へ延び: growth in the south of Japan;

I think it means…
:speech_balloon: “The weather front travels south and grows, as in it is gaining strength as it is travelling south”…

前線上: above the weather front… probably an inaccurate translation.
低気圧: low-atmospheric pressure;

海へ進む見込みです…

“There’s a possibility it might head towards the ocean“

前線上:
In what sense here? I’m not familiar with meteorology so I’m wondering.

In this case, I think it’a different grammar, probably some kind of shortcut for ようにしてください/ようにしなさい Please make sure to/Please make an effort to
忘れ物をしないようにしてください:Please make sure to not leave things behind

The してください part is actually often dropped, for example:
風邪をひかないように : Don’t catch a cold / make sure to not catch a cold

So in the original sentence it’s like they are quoting what’s the JMA is requesting:
気象庁は「川の増水などに警戒するよう(にしてください)」呼びかけています。
Literally: The JMA is requesting: “Please make sure to be cautious about rising rivers”

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I’d like to claim sentence 5.

特に九州や四国では30日昼ごろにかけて: specifically, in Kyuushuu and Shikoku for around the 30th afternoon,

東海では30日夜から1日にかけて: From the 30th night til the 1st, from the eastern sea

局地的に1時間に50ミリ以上の非常に激しい雨が降って: locally, for one hour, more than 50 mm of very intense rain will fall

大雨になるおそれがあります: the threat of heavy rain is there.

In summary: Specifically, in Kyuushuu and Shikoku, from the eastern sea, from the 30th night til the 1st, with localized rainfall of more than 50 mm/hour, heavy rain will fall.

Edit: didn’t realize this was from the 29th. Changed tenses to be future instead of past.

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③ 気象庁によりますと、前線が九州を通って日本の南へ延び、前線上の低気圧が1日にかけて日本海へ進む見込みです。

So “according to” in polite ~ます form then.

I wasn’t sure what a weather front ( 前線 ) was so I looked it up:

A weather front is a transition zone between two different air masses at the Earth’s surface. Each air mass has unique temperature and humidity characteristics.

It doesn’t really tells me much more about what it is but it’s a bit more precise.

前線が九州を通って日本の南へ延び

前線『が』is the subject of that sentence.
九州『を』is usually the direct object although here it’s different. More specifically:
ⓒ indicates an area traversed
(I believe).

Summary

日本『の』南 means the “south of Japan”.
通って: Is the ~て form of 通る.
I think it’s probably the following meaning in order to be in synch with を:

ⓐ to go by, to go past, to go along, to travel along, to pass through, to use (a road), to take (a route), to go via, to go by way of

『へ』is a particle which indicates a destination followed by 延び. What I don’t understand is how 延び works interaction with へ here since it’s a noun and not a verb. I’m used to an active movement verb being used with 『へ』.

③ 気象庁によりますと、前線が九州を通って日本の南へ延び、前線上の低気圧が1日にかけて日本海へ進む見込みです。

I don’t really understand everything which is written but I think it says something along the lines of…
:speech_balloon: “According to the M. Agency, something about Kyushu and the south of Japan, the low atmospheric pressure of the weather front, over a period of time (one day) the Japanese sea might advance”

I don’t really get how へ is meant to be used without a verb but it’ll likely cinch in later on.

@angeltears & @nclbk: thanks for participating! I wish I knew enough Japanese to give you feedback! Maybe another more experienced member will.