why does the signs have words when they look like some of the letters
Is your question why do some of the kanji have components that look like kana characters?
Short answer: because the kana characters were derived from the kanji in the first place.
If that wasn’t your question, please reword?
Are you talking about, for instance the katakana ロ and the kanji 口? The katakana エ and the kanji 工?
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