[aDoIJG] N 💮 A Dictionary of Intermediate Japanese Grammar

Crossover from 4⃣ Quartet 2 - Chapter 7 (Quartet Study Group) :slight_smile:
Quartet’s take on におけろ:


And on にもかかわらず

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Week 17 begins


Entries: に察しお / 察し to によっおより
Pages: 275 - 301

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Terribly behind but checking in anyway: today I worked through にほかならない and had a few questions, but I didn’t want to bother you guys before looking them up on youtube, where they got answered. (Yes, that’s ほか as in 他, and the pronunciation pattern is ほ/かなら\ない)

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I went on a week long trip and I fell terribly behind as well. Currently at に限っお but I’ll try to catch up this week.

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But we like being bothered!

What video ended up helping you out?

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This guy
I felt his explanations were pretty clear and concise – even though explanations weren’t what I was there for haha

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に関しお / に関する

The お in に関しお can be dropped, but the お in に関しおは can’t be dropped.

に関し(たし)おは is used for topic presentation. に関する modifies the noun which follows. The polite form に関したしお can appear in formal speech.

Also, に぀いお can replace に関しお. This usage is less formal in tone than に関しお. の is necessary after に぀いお when it replaces に関する. のこず with a particle and に関しお express the same idea. However, のずこ* (I’m assuming this is a typo in the book? :sweat_smile:) is informal, so it’s not appropriate in a formal context. In addition, のこず does not have a prenominal version.

I see variations of this fairly frequently in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling. Here's one slightly more unusual example from the 2024.02.17 show where Miyu Yamashita fought the rookie Wakana Uehara in a singles match:

Hard mode: here’s the video.

山䞋「今日はわかなずのシングルマッチ、初めおだったんですけど。最近あったねくじぇねのトヌナメントで優勝しただけあっお、めちゃくちゃ成長がすごくあったなっおいう颚にも感じたしたし。ホントに気持ちの匷さっおいうのはねくじぇね 倢プロレスの時から印象がすごく匷かったので。そこからたた気持ちず技術面もどんどん成長しおきおるなっおいうう颚に感じたした。なんだろう 数幎埌がすごく楜しみだなっお思いたしたし、このたた成長しおいけば匷くなれるんじゃないかなっお思いたした。楜しかったです。だいぶ厳しく攻めたしたアゞャさんず詊合したりしおる䞭で、けっこう打たれお打たれおどんどん焚き぀けるずいうか燃える子なのかなっお印象だったので。ここたでやったらどうかっおずころを、詊すじゃないけど闘いの䞭でわかなの匷さを芋たかったので、厳しめに攻めたした。予想以䞊の匷さは返っおきたそうですね。ただ印象通りかなっおいうずころですね。そこを越えたずきにもっず勝負ができるかなっお思いたした。䌞びしろを感じたした、今日に関しおは。匷さを感じたずいうよりは䌞びしろを感じたかなっお思いたす」

Yamashita: “Today was my first singles match with Wakana. She won the Next Generation Tournament recently, and I really felt that she had grown a lot. Truly, the strength of her feelings in the Next Generation Tournament
 Ever since Yume Pro wrestling, my impression was that her feelings were incredibly strong. From that point on, I have felt that her feelings and technical abilities have both steadily grown. I wonder
 I’m really looking forward to where she’ll be a few years from now, and I think if she keeps growing at this rate, she’ll just get even stronger. That was fun.”

(Your attacks were unrelenting)

“With things like that match with Aja-san, as she took move after move, it steadily kindled a flame, or rather she seemed to be the kind of girl who gets really fired up. I wanted to see how she’d do if I went this far, not as a test, but to see Wakana’s strength during a fight, so I attacked her without letting up.”

(Did she fire back with more strength than you’d expected?)

“Yeah—Well, I would say she was in line with my expectations. I think we’ll be able to have more of a contest when she’s past that point. Today I felt that there was room for growth. Rather than feeling her strength, I felt her potential.”

Here you have one of those quirks of spoken Japanese where the topic is presented as a tacked on part at the end of the sentence instead of being located more reasonably at the beginning.

に代わっお

X に代わっお is used to express replacement/substitution of X by something or someone else. X に代わっお can be used in both spoken and written Japanese, but に代わり is used only in written Japanese.

The difference between N に代わっお and N の代わりに is that the former can’t be used when on-the-spot substitution of objects is expressed, and the latter cannot be used when “replacement” is expressed. (I had to read the examples a few times before I understood the distinction they were making here, though I doubt I’ll remember it
)

The substitution of something by someone else can be expressed by both N に代わっお and N の代わりに.

I couldn’t find an exact example of any of the structures mentioned in this entry in TJPW.

に比べるず / 比べお

に比べるず and 比べお are interchangeable. The particle ず can be used instead of に before 比べるず / 比べお.

I know for a fact that this is in TJPW because I mined this word in my very first year of being a fan translator!

Here's a very recent example from Grand Princess on 2024.03.31, after Juria Nagano teamed up with Moka Miyamoto in one of the last matches of her pro wrestling career:

Hard mode: here’s the video. I’m including the whole comment for additional context and also because Juria makes a really funny mistake in here (context: for one of her many jobs, she works as a nurse). Oh hey, the decision paid off because there are actually two examples of 比べお in here, one with ず and one with に. I wonder why one would be used over the other.

もか「じゅりあさんのデビュヌ戊でタッグを組んで。2幎前の䞡囜だったんですけど、その時は負けおしたったんですよね。今日は勝぀こずができお嬉しいですし、本圓に残り少ない真拳空勝の䞭で闘えお嬉しかったですし、心匷かったです」

Moka: “We fought as a tag team for Juria-san’s debut match two years ago at Ryogoku, and we lost that time. I’m glad we were able to win today, and I’m really happy that we were able to fight in these last remaining Shinken Kusho matches. It was very heartening.”

長野「残り2戊ずいうこのビッグマッチでも、もかさんず真拳空勝を組たせおもらっお、今たでで䞀番気が合ったんじゃないかなっお。最埌、もかさんがカッコよく決めおくださっお、もかさんず真拳空勝組めおよかったなっお思っおお。匕退のカヌドは決たっおないけど、デビュヌした䞡囜囜技通でもかず組めお勝利できおうれしいです」

Nagano: “At this big show with only two matches left, I was able to team up with Moka-san as Shinken Kusho, and I think we were more on the same page than ever before. Moka-san looked cool finishing the match at the end, and I’m glad we got to team up as Shinken Kusho. My retirement match hasn’t been set, but I’m glad I was able to team up and get a win at Ryogoku Kokugikan, where I made my debut.”

――2幎前ず比べお成長できた郚分やプロレスの良さは

(How have you grown compared to where you were two years ago, and what do you think are the positive aspects of wrestling?)

長野「2幎前に初めお人ずプロレスで闘っお、メチャクチャ悔しかったのず、プロレスっおこんなに痛くお楜しいんだずいう気持ちがあっお。2幎前は緊匵もあったし、お客さんをどうやったら楜したせるかたで考えられおなくお、ずにかく勝ちたいずいう気持ちだったんですけど、今回はもかさんず䞀緒に楜しみ぀぀、お客さんを楜したせるこずができたらなず考えられおいたので、自分でも成長できたず思いたすし、リングから患者さん じゃない笑、お客さんの顔を芋お「この方はい぀も来おくれる方だ」「この方は応揎しおくれおいる方だ」ず思いながら、䜓感しながら闘うこずができお、2幎前ずは違う景色になっおたした」

Nagano: “Two years ago, I fought people in pro wrestling matches for the first time, and I was really frustrated, and I also felt just how painful and fun pro wrestling can be. Two years ago, I was nervous, and I didn’t think about how I could best entertain the audience, although I did feel I wanted to win, but this time, I was able to think about how I was going to entertain the crowd while I was having fun with Moka-san, so my growth is evident even to myself, and seeing the smiling faces of the patients
 no” (laughs) “the AUDIENCE, I was able to fight while thinking, feeling in my body, ‘This is someone who always comes to see us’, or ‘This is someone who supports me’. It’s a different view compared to two years ago.”

――䞀緒に闘った仲間から芋お成長は

(As a friend who fought alongside her, what do you think of her growth?)

もか「2幎前に比べおだいぶ私もじゅりあさんも成長したなず思っおたす。連係技も増えたし、息もあうようになったし。個々の成長もそうなんですけど、タッグの成長も2幎間ですごいしたなず思いたす」

Moka: “Compared to two years ago, I think both Juria-san and I have grown a lot. We have more tag moves, and we’ve become more in sync with each other. We’ve grown individually, too, but I think we’ve really grown a lot as a tag team over the past two years.”

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にもかかわらず

にもかかわらず expresses an idea of “in spite of X”, where X is an action/state.

The verb (i.e. Vinf) and Adj(い)inf can be connected directly with にもかかわらず, but Adj(な) has to be nominalized before it is connected with the conjunction. However, if the Adj(な) is followed by である, the use of the nominalizer の is optional.

The connections のに and けれど(も) can replace にもかかわらず with proper adjustments of connections. The basic difference between the former two and the latter is that にもかかわらず is used in written or formal spoken Japanese. Choosing にもかかわらず over のに / けれど(も) implies the stronger disjunctiveness, that in the former means “totally contrary to everyone’s expectation,” whereas the latter means “contrary to everybody’s expectation.”

I wasn't sure if I'd find this structure anywhere in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling, but I did find an example from the press conference on 2024.03.13 wherein Nao Kakuta announced her retirement:

Here’s the video of the whole presser, and here’s the official transcript. I’m not going to timestamp the below excerpt, but it’s in there if for whatever reason anyone wants to go digging.

――最埌の詊合で思い描いおいるこずは

――What do you envision for your final match?

角田「正盎、匕退ずいうのも自分で決めおいたにもかかわらず、実感が沞いおなくお。ちょっずず぀今日たでにお䞖話になった方々にご連絡させおいただいたりずか、この䌚堎たぶん最埌だったなずか。自分の䞭で䞀぀䞀぀最埌を重ねおいっおたずころだったので。  質問なんでしたっけ苊笑」

Kakuta: “To be honest, even though I had made the decision to retire on my own, it still hasn’t sunk in. Contacting everyone who has helped me up to this point one by one, thinking ‘this will probably be my last time in this venue’. I was just piling up lasts in my mind. 
What was the question?” (laughs)

――最埌の匕退詊合で 。

――Your retirement match


角田「ああそうだ苊笑。そこたでビゞョンが自分で芋えおないのもあるんですけど、笑顔でリングで10カりントゎングを聞いお降りられたらいいなず思っおいるので。このあずの4ヵ月の䞭で詊合をしおいっお䞀番最埌の詊合はこうしたいなずいう願望ができる気がしたす」

Kakuta: “Oh, right.” (laughs) “I don’t have a vision for what’ll happen that far ahead, but I hope to listen to the ten-bell salute in the ring with a smile on my face, and then step down. As I do my matches in these last four months, I think I’ll be able to come up with what I want to do for my final match.”

に基づいお / 基づく

に基づく and に基づいた modify the noun which follows. に基づいお can be paraphrased as を基に(しお). The prenominal form is を基にした.

I couldn't remember ever having encountered this before, so I thought surely it wouldn't be anywhere in TJPW, but Mahiro Kiryu proved me wrong! This was from the 2022.09.03 show leading up to Mahiro and Yuki Kamifuku's tag title challenge:

Hard mode: here’s the video. For additional context, both Mahiro and Kamiyu went to Toyo University, and their tag team name (Toyo Mates) is named after the school.

桐生「勝ちたしたよ」

Kiryu: “I won!”

䞊犏「最近、マヒロちゃん党力マヒロモヌドじゃないですか」

Kamifuku: “Mahiro-chan is in Full Power Mahiro Mode these days, aren’t you?”

桐生「党力マヒロモヌドです。明日もタむトルマッチなわけですから、今日負けるわけには絶察いかないずいうこずで。党力でやらせおいただきたした」

Kiryu: “I am in Full Power Mahiro Mode. We have a title match tomorrow, so there was absolutely no way we could lose today. I gave it my all.”

䞊犏「よかったヌ」

Kamifuku: “Good for you!”

桐生「新しい技も 」

Kiryu: “We also have a new move
”

䞊犏「最埌新しい技で勝っお、マヒロちゃん付けた名前、なんだっけ」

Kamifuku: “That move we won with at the end, what did you name it?”

桐生「技の名前ですか いいんですか、それで」

Kiryu: “The move name? You’re cool with it?”

䞊犏「いいよ、採甚」

Kamifuku: “Yep, I approve!”

桐生「じゃあ、いいですか。䞊犏のドラムロヌルから゚ンリョり」

Kiryu: “Well, okay then.” (after Kamifuku’s drum roll) “Enryo!”

䞊犏「よっ 最埌の人でやった技の名前ぱンリョりです」

Kamifuku: “Yeah! The name of the tag move we did at the end is Enryo!”

桐生「゚ンリョりっおいうのは東掋倧孊を創った井䞊円了さんっお人に基づいおいたす。カタカナで」

Kiryu: “It’s named ‘Enryo’ after Enryo Inoue, who is the man who founded Toyo University. It’s written in katakana.”

䞊犏「井䞊円了はバケモノ孊に特化した人なので、あの技でバケモノ狩りをするっおむメヌゞで」

Kamifuku: “Enryo Inoue was a man who specialized in monsterology, so I have an image in my head of us hunting monsters with that move.”

桐生「そういうこずです。それを携えお、明日もこの勢いで勝っおベルトを取っお。うわぁヌっお、やりたいですね」

Kiryu: “Yes, exactly. We’re going into tomorrow with that in hand, and we’re going to ride this momentum and win the belts. Raaah!” (holding up an imaginary belt in victory) “I want to do it!”

䞊犏「そうです。明日頑匵るので、井䞊円了に恥じぬ詊合をしお、ベルトを人で取ったら倧孊に行っお、卒業埌の進路を迷っおるや぀らに党員アドバむスしおやる。埅っずけ」

Kamifuku: “Right. We’re going to do our best tomorrow, and we’re gonna have a match that will not embarrass Enryo Inoue, and when we win the belts, we’ll go to the university and give advice to everyone who’s struggling to figure out what to do after graduation. Be ready for it.”

桐生「党員プロレスラヌにしおやる」

Kiryu: “We’re going to make them all become wrestlers.”

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Week 18 begins


Entries: の関係で to ぬ
Pages: 302 - 317

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Looking at the page counts we’re back to some shorter entries again, which is a nice change after heavyweights like によっお.

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Maybe I’ll have a hope of actually catching up soon, haha.

になるず

This one feels straightforward enough to me, it almost feels strange that it got its own entry
 I suppose the “when it comes to” meaning is maybe different enough to warrant this, though.

Regardless of whether the noun before になるず is a time noun or not, the Nになるず as a whole is used to express the time when an uncontrollable state occurs or a habitual action occurs.

I thought note 2 was a bit confusing
 It says that the phrase in question is a subjectless construction because the sentence simply does not have a subject. When the noun/noun phrase that precedes になるず is a non-time expression, になるず is used either as a subjectless construction, or as a non-subjectless construction.

I found several examples in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling, but I'm singling out this one because the translation gave me such a headache! This was from 2024.03.31 Grand Princess, where Nao Kakuta teamed up with the ex-AKB48 idol Ami Yumoto (who was making her pro wrestling debut):

Hard mode: here’s the video. I’m including the start of the comments because it makes the part with the grammar point later on make more sense. This one took some rearranging to try to get it to work in English, so it might not be the most helpful example for anyone else :sweat_smile:.

湯本「デビュヌ戊、無事終わりたしたが 緎習の時はここうたくいけたのにっおいう反省点もあったので、これが次に぀ながるいいきっかけになったらいいなず思う詊合でした」

Yumoto: “I successfully finished my debut match, but
 there were some points where things didn’t go so well even though they went well in training, so I hope this match will be a good start that leads to the next opportunity.”

角田「デビュヌおめでずう 䞀緒に緎習しおお、自分でそれを発揮するっおいうタむミングをずっずうかがっおくれおたのかなっお詊合の䞭で思ったので。1回目の囜技通は倧きな倧䌚に向かっおっおやっおきたのが今回2回目っおなった時にこうやっお挔劇の瞁が぀ながっお隣に亜矎ちゃんず立おおっおいう。2回目はその時ずは違った目暙をもっお今日に臚めたし、私は今日リングの景色を焌き付けおきたした。ありがずうございたした」

Kakuta: “Congratulations on your debut! We practiced together, and I thought during the match that she was constantly waiting for the right moment to show what she could do. I approached the first Kokugikan as a big show, but for the second one, I was able to stand next to Ami-chan through our theater connection. I faced today with a different goal than I had last time, and my view of the ring today has been burned into my memories. Thank you very much!”

湯本「ただプロレスはやりたいそうですね ちょっず自分でももっずうたくできたなっお点が今日芋぀かったので、そこを成功させるために挑みたいなっお気持ちもありたした。逆に今日うたくいったずころは党䜓的にすごい気持ちを䞊げおいったので、党䜓的にうたくいったんですけど 緎習の方がもっず萜ち着いおできおたので気持ちの面で。プロレスラヌずしおのアピヌルポむントはちっちゃい時からおおんば嚘っお家族からも蚀われおきたので、そこはいたも倉わらないなず思うので。どんどんリング䞊で跳ねお、今床は空䞭殺法ずかできたらいいなっお思いたす。厳しい攻撃を受けたした怖かったです笑」

(Do you still want to wrestle?)

Yumoto: “Well
 I found things to be proud of in today’s match, so I’d like to challenge myself to pull those things off successfully again in the future.”

(What went well today?)

“Overall my feelings were very elevated
 Although on the whole it went well, I was on edge and felt that I managed to be more calm during training, and that’s sticking out in my mind.”

(What are your strong points as a professional wrestler?)

“My family has called me a tomboy since I was a little girl, and I don’t think that’s changed. I hope I can leap around in the ring even more, and do some high flying next time.”

(You took some intense offense)

“It was scary!” (laughs)

角田「そうだよね、怖いよね笑」

Kakuta: “It was scary, huh?” (laughs)

湯本「やっぱり衝撃もすごかったですし、プロレスやっおるっお思いたした」

Yumoto: “The impact was quite something, and I was like, ‘I’m really wrestling!’”

角田「パヌトナヌずしお湯本の動きはどう芋おいた最初から亜矎ちゃんより私の方が緊匵しおたので苊笑。今日䞀日、朝から䌚堎にいるなかで䜕回か『緊匵しおる』っお聞いたんですけど『たぁ倧䞈倫です』みたいな。で、盎前で『もう第1詊合始たっおるじゃん、準備しなきゃ、いこいこ』『歯磚きたヌす』っお笑。すごいんですよ。床胞がホントにすごいので、分けおほしいなっお思いたした」

(As her partner, how were Yumoto’s moves?)

Kakuta: “I was more nervous than Ami-chan from the start.” (laughs) “The whole day, we’ve been here since the morning, and I asked her several times, ‘Are you nervous?’ But she was just like, ‘I’m fine.’ Then, right before, I was like, ‘The first match is starting! We have to get ready! Let’s go!’ And she was like, ‘I’m going to brush my teeth.’" (laughs) “She’s amazing. She really has a lot of courage, and I wish she’d share some with the rest of us.”

湯本「今日は緊匵より楜しかったです」

Yumoto: “Today was more fun than stressful.”

角田「負けず嫌いなのかなっお思いたす。緎習でも自分のいいずころを、個性になるものを出しおいきたいっおいうのを感じおたから。それが自分の䞭で緎習の時はもっずうたくいけおたずか、そういうのがいざ詊合になるずっお 悔しかったのかなっお。あんたり悔しいっお口に出さないですけど、絶察悔しいはずで」

Kakuta: “I think she hates to lose. Even during training, I felt that she wanted to show her good side, the things that set her apart. With that feeling of hers, I thought she may be frustrated—once the match happened—about things that went better in training and the like. She doesn’t often say she’s frustrated, but it’s bound to be frustrating.”

湯本「いや、悔しいですよ もっず緎習しおきたす」

Yumoto: “No, I’m frustrated! I’m going to practice more.”

においお / おける

A very 90s example sentence:

コンピュヌタは近い将来においおほずんどの家庭に行き枡るだろう。

(Computers will probably spread to almost every household in the near future.)

においお / おける can be used with “non-physical” locations, such as fields of study. における modifies the noun which follows, and it can’t be used to specify existence.

においお / おける is a highly formal expression, so it’s rarely used for personal activities or trivial events (using this with seeing a movie and gathering for a birthday party get the full three Michelin question marks!)

When においお indicates a time, it can’t be used for a specific time. This restriction does not apply to における.

で also indicates the place of an action, an event, or a state. So the example sentences can be paraphrased with で. However, with における, の must follow で. And で can’t be used when においお / おける is used to indicate a “nonphysical” location. Unlike においお / おける, で can be used for personal activities and trivial events.

に also indicates time. So においお can be paraphrased using just に. Because に is replaced by の when N に modifies a noun, における in the example they give is paraphrased using の. Unlike においお, に can’t be used for specific times.

Considering it’s a “highly formal expression”, you’d think I wouldn’t see this in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling, right? You’d be wrong! I’m actually very glad that I read this entry haha because some things make a bit more sense now
 :sweat_smile:

Here's one example from the 2024.03.18 press conference before Grand Princess. This was from the portion for the tag title match wherein Arisu Endo and Suzume challenged Yuki Aino and Ryo Mizunami for the tag titles:

Here’s the video of the whole press conference and the official transcript. There may or may not be discrepancies in the Japanese quoted below since my transcript was Shupro’s.

愛野「私には持っおない歊噚がある、ずは具䜓的に䜕私は2人みたいに玠早く動いたし、飛んだり跳ねたりできないずいうずころは、䞀番わかりやすい私にない歊噚かなず思っおいたす。2月の倧阪倧䌚で悔しくも匕き分けだったんですけど、最埌に芋せた鈎芜の粘りずかは、私の想像ですけど鈎芜は動けなかったんじゃないかなず。それでもあそこたで負けないために粘れるずいうのが、これはすごいなず思いたした」

(The weapons they have that you don’t, what do you specifically mean by that?

Aino: “Quick movements like what the two of them are capable of, flying and leaping around the ring, I think those are the most obvious weapons that I don’t have. There was that frustrating draw at the Osaka show in February, and when it comes the tenacity that Suzume showed at the end—just from my perspective at the time I thought there was no way she could still move, but toughing it out to the extent that she did so that she wouldn’t lose, I thought that was amazing.”

遠藀「逆に王者組に察しお自分たちにない歊噚はやっぱり最初の入堎の時の盛り䞊がりは、ちょっず悔しいけどただちょっずあれかなっお思っおいたす」

(Conversely, can you talk about weapons that, in contrast to the champion team, you don’t have?)

Endo: “Of course, well, regrettable as it may be, I think that our getting the crowd excited during our entrance may not be all there.”

鈎芜「やっぱりプロレスにおいお䞀番シンプルでわかりやすくおカッコいいパワヌは私たちにはないものなので。私たちは逆にそんなカッコいい力に察しおどうやっお闘うかを日々考えお育っおきたので、それをパワヌを持っおいる方に認めおもらっおいるのはすごく嬉しいこずだず思いたす」

Suzume: “Power, the most straightforward, easiest to understand, and coolest thing in wrestling, we don’t have that. Instead, we’ve spent our development thinking every single day about how we’re going to fight against such cool power, so I’m really happy to get acknowledged by those who possess that kind of power.”

に埓っお / 埓い

Vinf・nonpast に埓っお / 埓い is used to express that something beyond human control takes place simultaneously with something else that goes on. The verbs in both main and subordinate clauses do not express a momentary action, but a continuous process. If it’s a noun instead of a verb, this isn’t applicable, so what occurs in this construction can occur momentarily or non-spontaneously.

埓っお and 埓い are originally Vお and Vたす forms of the verb 埓う, which (WK users should already know) means “obey”, “comply”, or “follow”.

に埓っお / 埓い cannot be preceded by an Adj(い/な) or copula. And the verb before に埓っお / 埓い must be Vinf・nonpast.

The difference between に埓っお and 埓い is stylistical. The latter is usually used in written Japanese whereas the former can be used in both spoken and written style.

Vinf・nonpast に぀れお / ぀れ is an expression very similar to に埓っお / 埓い. The difference seems to be that the former is more of a spoken style, whereas the latter is more of a written style.

No に埓っお / 埓い examples in TJPW that I could find! Makes sense, considering the stuff I’m translating is basically entirely speech.

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Yes, I found that a bit hard to interpret too, but I eventually decided that what they meant was that the clause (the one whose verb is なる) was subjectless, so e.g. in example (h)

雪になるず、この空枯はよく閉鎖になる。

the sentence as a whole has a subject (この空枯) but the subclause 雪になる doesn’t. The examples in note 2 are of the other use of になるず where the なる does have a subject (e.g. in 季節が春になるず there’s a subject of なる and it is 季節).

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に過ぎない

に過ぎない is not commonly used with adjectives, although it can be. To express the idea that someone or something is X and that’s all (where X is an adjective), だけだ is usually used.

If used with a number + counter, the quantifier can be either a number with or without a counter, or a word with no number, such as 少し “little, few” and わずか “few”.

Vinf に過ぎない can be paraphrased as Vinf だけで. N に過ぎない can be paraphrased using ただの N だ. However, ただの can also mean “ordinary” depending on the following noun. When ただの N だ is interpreted in this way, N に過ぎない and ただの N だ are not exactly equivalent.

Quantifier に過ぎない can be paraphrased as ただの (or たった(の)) N だ.

I was going to say I don't think I've seen this before, but Shoko Nakajima proved me wrong! Here's from the Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling show in Shoko's hometown Niigata on 2024.02.17 (I've already linked this same promo at least once):

Hard mode: here’s the video.

䞭島「新期守りたした」

Nakajima: “We protected Niigata!”

ミサヲ「享楜共鳎が新期の愛ず平和を守ったぞヌ」

Misao: “Kyoraku Kyomei protected love and peace in Niigata!”

䞭島「でも私は今日が序章に過ぎないずいうこずを知りたした。なぜなら3月31日䞡囜囜技通、マックス・ゞ・むンペむラヌずアゞャコングさん、いやアゞャコング コむツらず詊合をするこずになりたした。どっちが最匷の怪獣か決着を぀けようずいうそんな気持ちです。こっちには最匷のヒヌロヌもいるんだからな」

Nakajima: “But we’ve learned that today is just the prologue. Because on March 31 at Ryogoku Kokugikan, Max The Impaler and Aja Kong-san, no, Aja Kong! We’re going to have a match against those guys. It feels like it’ll be to decide once and for all who is the strongest kaiju. We also have the strongest hero on our side!”

に察しお / 察し

に察しお can be used to express a lot of different things. In the examples in this entry, it’s used to express someone’s attitude/action toward someone/something, or contrast/comparison, or confrontation, or interest, or in the sense of “per”. I’ve occasionally had trouble pinning down exactly what sense the word is being used in


N1 に察する / 察しおの N2 means “N2 in regard to N1”, or “against”.

察しお can be replaced by 察し in written Japanese or formal speech.

N に察しお and N {な / である / だった / であった} のにたいしお are different in meaning: the latter means “whereas”, but the former does not.

I've seen this plenty of times in native media, but here are a few TJPW examples. This is from the 2024.03.18 press conference, which I've already shared parts of (and I think I've already shared this exact quote before), but I couldn't pass up the opportunity to share two different uses of this grammar point in short succession. This is from the tag title match portion, building up to Arisu Endo and Suzume vs Yuki Aino and Ryo Mizunami:

Here is once again the video link to the whole presser, and the official transcript.

愛野「私には持っおない歊噚がある、ずは具䜓的に䜕私は2人みたいに玠早く動いたし、飛んだり跳ねたりできないずいうずころは、䞀番わかりやすい私にない歊噚かなず思っおいたす。2月の倧阪倧䌚で悔しくも匕き分けだったんですけど、最埌に芋せた鈎芜の粘りずかは、私の想像ですけど鈎芜は動けなかったんじゃないかなず。それでもあそこたで負けないために粘れるずいうのが、これはすごいなず思いたした」

(The weapons they have that you don’t, what do you specifically mean by that?)

Aino: “Quick movements like what the two of them are capable of, flying and leaping around the ring, I think those are the most obvious weapons that I don’t have. There was that frustrating draw at the Osaka show in February, and when it comes the tenacity that Suzume showed at the end—just from my perspective at the time I thought there was no way she could still move, but toughing it out to the extent that she did so that she wouldn’t lose, I thought that was amazing.”

遠藀「逆に王者組に察しお自分たちにない歊噚はやっぱり最初の入堎の時の盛り䞊がりは、ちょっず悔しいけどただちょっずあれかなっお思っおいたす」

(Conversely, can you talk about weapons that, in contrast to the champion team, you don’t have?)

Endo: “Of course, well, regrettable as it may be, I think that our getting the crowd excited during our entrance may not be all there.”

鈎芜「やっぱりプロレスにおいお䞀番シンプルでわかりやすくおカッコいいパワヌは私たちにはないものなので。私たちは逆にそんなカッコいい力に察しおどうやっお闘うかを日々考えお育っおきたので、それをパワヌを持っおいる方に認めおもらっおいるのはすごく嬉しいこずだず思いたす」

Suzume: “Power, the most straightforward, easiest to understand, and coolest thing in wrestling, we don’t have that. Instead, we’ve spent our development thinking every single day about how we’re going to fight against such cool power, so I’m really happy to get acknowledged by those who possess that kind of power.”

にずっお

にずっお can’t mark a noun which represents the experiencer or agent (i.e. the semantic subject). In this case, には is used. には can also replace にずっお just in general. にずっお has a prenominal form にずっおの, but には does not.

In addition, because of the particle は, には gives a sense of contrast in some contexts while にずっお does not.

Here are a couple examples from after Miyu Yamashita lost her belt to Miu Watanabe in TJPW's 2024.03.31 show Grand Princess:

Hard mode: here’s the video.

山䞋「負けた。負けたした 。悔しいですね、やっぱ涙。うヌん めちゃめちゃ悔しいし、悔しいけど、6幎前ですね。未詩ず出䌚っお、そしお回りに回っお自分たちにずっお倧事な䞡囜で未詩ず闘えたのは私にずっおすごく特別です。ここからね、負けお終わりじゃないです。ここからこの悔しい気持ちだったり、今日感じた気持ちを噛みしめお、感じお 這い䞊がっおいく。そこがプロレスラヌずしお芋せるべき姿だず思うし、山䞋実優ずしおの匷さをここから芋せおいかなきゃいけないなず思いたす」

Yamashita: “I lost. I lost
 It’s so frustrating, as expected.” (cries) “Well
 it’s super frustrating and I’m disappointed, but it was six years ago, huh. Meeting Miu, and then after so long getting to fight her at Ryogoku, which is such an important stage for us, for me that was incredibly special. Going forward, just because I lost doesn’t mean it’s the end. From here, I’m going to reflect upon this frustration, the feelings I felt today, really feel them
 and then I will crawl back up. I think that is what I must show as a pro wrestler, and as Miyu Yamashita, I must show my strength from here.”

に぀いお

(Another really common easy grammar point, huh?)

N1 に぀いおの N2 means “N2 concerning N1”.

The difference between N に぀いお and N のこず is that the former means “about/concerning N” but the latter means “things about N”.

I see this fairly frequently in TJPW, I think mostly in interviewers' questions. Here's an example from after Yuki Arai defended the International Princess belt against Yuki Kamifuku on 2024.03.31:

Hard mode: here’s the video (though I can’t remember if this one was from a direct quote from the interviewer or a paraphrase on the part of the transcriber, so the video might be different).

荒井「防衛するこずができたしたヌなんかすごい、やっぱり顔を叩いたり、蹎られたりするこずが倚くお、やっぱりすごい先茩でもあるので、そのすごい差を感じお、自分勝おたけど、すごい悔しい気持ちが残るような詊合でした。でもやっぱり、もっずもっず匷くなりたいっお思ったし、もっずもっずプロレスを奜きになっお、いた以䞊にプロレスにも愛されたいなずすごく思いたした。もっずいろんな人ず詊合しお防衛しおいけるように頑匵りたいず思いたす。ありがずうございたした。顔をやり合う内容でしたけど、ああいった展開に぀いおお互い攻撃が䞻なので、きょうはあんたりメむクに力をいれずに、そこは気にせずに勝ちだけにこだわっおきたのですごい嬉しいです。

Arai: “I defended my belt! I took a lot of hits and kicks to the face, and my senpai was incredible just as I expected, so I felt a large gap between us, and even though I was able to get the win on my own, it was a match that left me feeling really frustrated. Just like before, I felt that I wanted to become even stronger, and I wanted to love professional wrestling even more and be loved by it in turn even more than I am now. I want to do my best so that I can have matches with a lot of different people and defend my belt. Thank you very much.”

(Can you talk about how you attacked each other’s faces, that development?)

“Since both of us mainly just attacked each other, I didn’t put much effort into my makeup today, and I focused solely on winning without worrying about that, so I’m very happy.”

2 Likes

I used to think of it as meaning ‘against’, indicating a contrast or opposition, but then I started to see it used in a more general sense in sentences like the following, where it’s translated simply as ‘for’:

この補品の著䜜者及び、補造、配垃に関わるいかなる者も、本゜フトり゚アの䜿甚、たたは䜿甚䞍胜によっお発生する損害に察する責任は、それが盎接的であるか間接的であるか、必然的であるか偶発的であるかに関わらず、負わないものずしたす。

The author of this (software) product and any of those involved in its production and distribution bear no responsibility for damage resulting from the use of or the inability to use this software, whether the damage is direct or indirect, or inevitable or accidental.

2 Likes

に぀き

In most cases, the number which precedes に぀き is one, but any number can precede it. When the number is one and a noun does not immediately precede that number, に぀き may be dropped. If the number is not one or if a noun immediately precedes that number, に぀き must appear.

に぀いお can be used instead of に぀き, though it’s less common.

圓たり also means “per”. The difference between 圓たり and に぀き is that while 圓たり can be used with a counter only (so without a number), に぀き requires both a number and a counter. However, when 圓たり appears with a counter only, it only appears with certain counters. It’s also used in the 圓たりの structure.

No に぀き examples that I could find in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling!

に぀れお / ぀れ

Vinf・nonpast に぀れお (or its more formal version Vinf・nonpast ぀れ) is used to express two simultaneously growing changes.

Since the conjunction/compound particle expresses change, the verbs used in the に぀れお / ぀れ clause and the main clause have to be a verb of change/process. Unless both of the verbs indicate change/process, the sentence is not acceptable.

All the cases of Vinf・nonpast に぀れお / ぀れ can be rephrased with ばほど, which indicates that in proportion to the increase of extent/degree of action or state, something happens. However, ばほど can only be paraphrased by に぀れお / ぀れ when the former expresses some change or process. Another difference is that only a verb or noun can come in front of に぀れお / ぀れ, but in front of ばほど, there can be a verb but also an Adj(い/な).

I did find an example in TJPW! This was from after AKB48 idol Shiori Aoki's second attempt at refereeing a wrestling match on 2023.09.18:

Hard mode: here’s the video.

青朚さん「前回よりも裁く人数が倚かったので、すごく芖野を広げないずいけなかったのが倧倉だったのず、たさか自分が攻撃を食らうずは思わなかったのですごくビックリしたした。前回よりも倧倉な詊合だったず思いたす。前回から修正した郚分は朚曜レフェリヌにちょっず特蚓しおもらったんですけど、詊合が盛り䞊がっおいく終盀に぀れお、私の声ずか仕草ずかで盛り䞊げおいかなきゃっおいうのを新たに教えおいただいたので。声の匵り方ずかを前よりも改善したした。今埌もレフェリヌをやりたいそうですね苊笑。機䌚があればやらせおいただきたいず思いたす。前回は賄賂疑惑があったが 今回は 今回もたったくないです そういうのは」

Aoki-san: “There were more people to keep an eye on than last time, so I had to have a wider field of vision, which was difficult. And I never expected to be attacked myself, so that totally startled me. I think the match was more difficult than the last one.”

(What have you tweaked since the last time?)

“I’ve received some special training from referee Kiso, and he taught me that as the excitement starts to build as the end of the match approaches, I should also liven up my voice and gestures. So I’ve improved how I was projecting my voice and such.”

(Do you want to continue refereeing in the future?)

“Yes.” (smiles) “If I have the opportunity, I want to do it.”

(Last time, there were suspicions of bribery
?)

“There wasn’t any bribery going on this time! 
 Either time!”

2 Likes

には

Vinf・nonpast には is used to indicate a purpose for doing something. The predicate often expresses the necessity for or importance of using a specific means.

Vinf・nonpast may be nominalized by の. There is no difference in meaning between には and のには.

には can take not only a Vinf・nonpast but a noun. A noun here is a noun of action which can take the verb する. There are two types: the stem of a する-verb, or the direct object of する. If a noun is not a noun of action, the sentence does not express a purpose.

(That note and the examples were honestly really helpful! に sure can do a lot, huh
)

There are at least four similar purpose expressions in Japanese, which I’m not going to describe the differences between because it would be too long, haha.

I tried searching for this a bit in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling, but には had way too many results, and all the ones I was going through were other meanings, so I gave up on trying to find this specific structure


によっお / より

Boy they sure give us a lot of examples for this one, huh?

The particle によっお indicates the means for doing something, dependency on a situation, cause for something, and an agent of a passive sentence.

When によっお means dependency on a situation, the preceding element can be an embedded yes-no question or a WH-question.

When によっお means a means for doing something, it can be preceded by a clause nominalized by こず.

によっお can be unconditionally replaced by により when it means dependency on a situation/something/someone. The difference is that により is used in written Japanese (I’m sensing a pattern here). The replacement is also possible when によっお means an instrument with which to do something. However, when the instrument is a concrete, tangible object, により cannot be used. When the particle means a cause or a passive agent, により is not used.

In the prenominal use of N1 による N2, the compound particle expresses cause or a means or a passive agent.

The particle で of means can always replace によっお of means. However, によっお / より cannot always replace で of means. The basic difference is a stylistical difference: で can be used in both spoken and written Japanese, but the latter is usually only used in written Japanese or very formal speech.

The difference between the agent marker に and によっお is grammatical and stylistical. When the subject of the passive sentence is inanimate the agent has to be marked not by に, but by によっお. によっお / より can be used in sentences which have impersonal and formal written style, but not in sentences which have personal style.

The particle によっお / より has the related expressions で (3) and のために. I like how they phrased this, haha: “As shown in [10], there are cases in which によっお is unacceptable for some unknown reason.” The crucial differences among で, のために, and によっお are: First, によっお and のために are more formal than で. That is why abstract Sino-Japanese words go more harmoniously with the former. Secondly, で can be used to mean “cause” rather loosely, but によっお can only be used when the focus is sharply placed on a “cause”.

Phew! Was that the single longest entry yet??

Here's a TJPW example from 2024.03.31 Grand Princess, where Max The Impaler (who is nonverbal and who also cannot understand Japanese) and Aja Kong teamed up in a willing effort against Kyoraku Kyomei:

Hard mode: here’s the video.

アゞャ「圓然の結果でしょ。誰が勝おんの、このタッグに。そこらの男が来たっお勝おねえよ。ムリムリ。タッグチャンピオン、りチらが挑戊者じゃなくっおよかったね。なあ タッグ組んでチャンピオンシップやったら、ナンバヌワンでしょ」

Aja: “It’s a foregone conclusion. Who can beat this tag team? Even if some men come from over there, they can’t beat us. It’s impossible. Tag team champions, you’re lucky we’re not your challengers. Right? If we team up and fight for the championship, we’d be number one, right?”

むンペむラヌ「りガヌッ」

Impaler: (growls)

アゞャ「フォヌ゚バヌ・ナンバヌワンでしょ 意思の疎通がどうずかこうずか蚀っおたけど、今たでリングで䜕床も䌚っおいるんでね。察戊するこずによっお、だいたい考えおいるこずはわかんのよ。お互い勝ちたいもの同士だからさ、組んだからにはそこらのあれみたいに仲間割れしないで、勝぀こずに重点眮いたらこういう結果になるよっおこず。でも自転車に蜢かれたり、マックスが吹っ飛んできたりでピンチはあったけど、そのぶん勝ちたい気持ちが勝っお助けに来おくれたからね。よかったよ」

Aja: “Forever number one, right? Someone was saying something about how we were going to communicate our intentions, but we’ve met in the ring many times before. Through fighting each other, I know what they’re thinking. We both want to win, so since we teamed up, as long as we don’t break up like that team out there and keep our eyes on the prize, it means that of course we’ll get results. But even though I got hit by a bicycle and Max came flying at me and we were in a pinch, our desire to win won out and they came to my rescue. I’m glad.”

むンペむラヌ「りガヌ」

Impaler: (growls)

アゞャ「これからも自由にやっおくよ、りチらは。たたこれ組たせたらどうなるかわかんないよ。東京女子壊滅しちゃうよ。じゃあね」

Aja: “We’re going to keep doing what we want. I don’t know what’ll happen if we get paired up again. TJPW will get destroyed. See you later.”

3 Likes

の関係で

の関係で is used to refer to causal relationship (I sure read that as “casual relationship” the first three times I tried to read this sentence) in a very indirect way. In fact, the noun 関係 means “relationship” and the particle で indicates a causal relationship.

From indirect to direct: の関係で, のため(に), で

Nで, から, and ので all require a specific cause, so in this sense, they are markers a direct references to causal relationship, with the latter two being more direct.

No の関係で examples that I could find in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling!

のこず

Surprised to see this one in the intermediate volume and not the basic


のこず literally means “things of/about”. This phrase often appears with a particle to form a compound particle meaning “about.”

X のこず(なん)ですが is used to introduce the reason for doing something, or to introduce a topic to the hearer.

I can’t remember if this came up during the discussion for the previous volume or not, but one of the things that confused me a bit are the cases when のこず is used when saying “I love you” and that sort of thing, like あなたのこずが奜きだ instead of あなたが奜きだ. Here’s a stack exchange question where this gets discussed. I feel like I have a better understanding of it now than I used to, but it was certainly confusing to me at first!

Actually, example (B) in this entry stood out to me for that very reason:

圌女のこずはもう忘れた方がいいよ。

You’d better forget about her now.

It’s interesting to me that we can say “forget about her” in English (or “forget her”) but you can’t say “love about her”, whereas you can in Japanese. I wonder why that language quirk happened, haha.

Here's an example of basically that from TJPW in a promo that is currently under discussion in the pro wrestling thread, haha. So, hot off the presses translation! This is from the 2024.05.06 Korakuen Hall show after the rookie Haru Kazashiro faced Maki Itoh:

This was said in-ring, so I can’t link a video. Also, the first part of it wasn’t transcribed, so I’ll share just an English translation for that and then give shupro’s transcription of the rest (warning for some strong language in the translation, lol, but it felt warranted):

䌊藀「お前なんか想定内だ。お前なんかただの負け犬。でも、お前のくそだせえ姿に、ここにいるみんなは明日も仕事頑匵ろうずか、孊校頑匵ろうずか思っおるず思うよ。お前は䌊藀に人生を倉えられたっお蚀っおたけど、お前ももうすでにたくさんの人の人生を倉えおるず思うし、お前はもう誰かにずっおのヒヌロヌだよ。だからな、ヒヌロヌなら䌊藀のこずを掚しずか憧れずか、そんなぬるいこず蚀っおんじゃねえぞ。ヒヌロヌなら、䌊藀麻垌を朰しに来い。じゃあな」

Itoh: "Hey, weakling! You said it yourself didn’t you? ‘Today I’m going to try my very hardest, I’ll exceed what Itoh imagines of me’. But you’re just as I expected. You’re just a loser. But! Seeing you look so fucking pathetic, I’m sure everyone here is thinking about trying their best at school or work tomorrow. You said that I changed your life, but I think you’ve already changed a lot of people’s lives, and you’re already a hero to someone. So if you’re a hero, don’t say such lame-ass things like ‘Itoh’s my fave’ or ‘I want to be her.’ If you’re a hero, come crush Maki Itoh. I’ll see you then."

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Cure Dolly has a video illuminating this topic further :slight_smile:

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のこずだから

I got so used to the super long entries, I was shocked when I reached the end of this one and that was it, haha.

Using X のこずだから, the speaker presents a reason for something, based on what habitually occurs with X.

When N のこずだから is used, the main clause must represent a future action, event, or state.

No examples of this that I could find in Tokyo Joshi Pro Wrestling!

のみ

The case particles (there’s that term again, haha. Actually, I think I might’ve figured out what exactly it means and why the English translation is “case” particle, but that’s a digression probably best saved for the other thread
) が and を are optional after のみ. Other case particles such as に, ぞ, ず, で, and から appear either before or after のみ. When the particle で appears with のみ, the meaning changes according to the position of the two particles.

だけ can replace のみ without a change in meaning. The main difference is that だけ can follow adjectives and quantifiers but のみ can’t. Also, だけ is used in formal and informal speech and written Japanese while のみ is used in formal speech and written Japanese.

I did manage to find an example in TJPW, though! But it was from the written portion of a press conference report, not anyone's actual speech. This was from the 2024.01.03 presser before TJPW's ittenyon show on, well, 1.4.

Here’s the transcript. Some additional context is that Max has a tendency of not showing up on time for these press conferences
 (Usually both wrestlers have to sign the contract in order for the title match to be official)

3日、東京・氎道橋にお1月4日埌楜園ホヌル倧䌚の䞉倧タむトルマッチ調印匏がおこなわれた。むンタヌナショナル・プリンセス遞手暩詊合の調印匏は王者のマックス・ゞ・むンペむラヌがい぀ものように䞍圚。挑戊者の荒井優垌のみが難波小癟合リングアナの叞䌚進行の元、調印曞にサむンを入れお意気蟌みを述べた。

On January 3, the contract signings for the three major title matches at the January 4 Korakuen Hall show was held in Suidobashi, Tokyo. As usual, the contract signing for the International Princess Championship was held without the champion, Max The Impaler. The challenger Yuki Arai was the only one present, and with ring announcer Sayuri Namba presiding over the signing, she signed the contract and expressed her determination.

の䞋で

Wow, pretty sure that if I have seen this before, I definitely accidentally read the kanji wrong


When this phrase refers to physical space, its use is limited to “atmospheric space”, for example, the sky and the weather.

Some nouns require the particle に rather than で after の䞋.

䞋で (oh no, a totally different reading
), when combined with some nouns, means the same as の䞋で.

No TJPW examples that I could find!

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There’s a much more memorable instance of のみ that comes to my mind from TJPW!

In Sayuri Nanba’s patter explaining the conduct rules for the live audience at the start of every show, she always says:

詊合䞭、動画の撮圱はスマホのみOKずなりたす
image
ビデオカメラやタブレットなどの動画撮圱はNGずなりたす
image

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