Accordiing/Based in Japanese

Hello guys,

Im new in Japanese Lanuage. And i face some difficulty to understand below grammar.
Hope guidance for expert here.

  1. N+上

All above means according to N~ but i dont what is the different.
Any one can help me?

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Sorry, fam. I’ve never studied those at all or in detail but I googled and found this article (just until the wonderful senpais come to rescue you)

P.S I didn’t read the article :sweat_smile:

That sensei’s page has some JLPT explanations

TQ Shandapanda =) :grinning: :grinning: :grinning:

によって・による has a lot of meanings, but it’s probably your most straightforward “according to/depending on”.

をもとにして is closer to “being based on”, its backward looking, as you look back at what was the inspiration for the current thing being discussed. (a design based on a kanji, a movie based on someone’s life)

を踏まえて is more forward looking, and, as far as I’ve seen it, mostly used to talk about future decisions or actions. You use it to describe upon what you base those decisions or actions. It can also mean “to take into consideration”.

I’m not sure about N+上, nothing comes to mind. Unless you have an example sentence, I’m not sure what you’re talking about. Xの上では can be used to mean “according to” (the news, a graph, the newspaper), but I don’t know if that’s what you want to know.

Hope this helps a little.


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